“Acid Sulfate Soils” (2018)

http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/topics/land-and-soil/soil-degradation/acid-sulfate-soils

This site gives a brief, explanation of acid sulfate soils. Stating the impact, causes, location and preventions of acid sulfate soils. The impacts such as damaging water ways and killing aquatic life are thoroughly explained to educate people on the effects of acid sulfate soils. Causes being past practices in drainage and flood-mitigation, both coastal and inland. This website gives a sufficient introduction and explanation to acid soils, while rendering resources for further knowledge. All information on this site is easy to access and displays the contributors to the article.

 

“Aluminum Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants” (1995) 

http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/107/2/315.full.pdf

 This PDF on the web is focused on aluminum in the soil, particularly its toxicity and tolerance. It is very informative and goes into great detail. It is a little bit on the lengthy side, and the information is very specific with an at times confusing vocabulary. However, it is still easy to navigate and find what you are looking for by using the subtitles. The bibliography and credentials are extensive.

“Basic Soil Chemistry: pH” (undated)

http://gen.uga.edu/documents/soil/activity/Basic_Soil_Chemistry_pH.pdf

This website is about pH, one of the basics of soil chemistry. This website is good because it starts with basic information, which explains what you should know about pH before you begin. It also has a sidebar to inform the objectives, skills, and supplies. There is also a step by step of a lab that might want to be used. The website is easily maneuvered, and very simple. It has clear instructions, and an example data table for beginners.       

"Basic Soil Components" 

http://www.extension.org/pages/54401/basic-soil-components

There are no links to other information because the information is separated by a bolded header and diagrams. Some of the topics the website covers are minerals, water, organic matter, gases, and micro-organisms. The websites has a few visuals; enough to help understand the topic. This website would be useful for gaining a basic understanding of soil chemistry. Another website would be needed to go further into understanding it.                                                                                   

“Basic Soil Properties” (2005)

http://landresources.montana.edu/swm/documents/Final_proof_SW1.pdf

This website focuses on the topics of soil properties, soil textures, soil chemical properties, soil organic matter, and microbes. The website is easy to read and follow. It has appropriate visuals and references. The website explains the relationships and the effects that chemicals will have on different aspects in the soil.

“Carbon Cycle.”  (2003)

 http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/carbon/efcarbon.html

This easy to maneuver website is colorful and eye-catching, attracting the reader to it right away. There are brief descriptions in a simple manner that includes good descriptions and information of the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles that happens partly in the soil. There are good links as well as a thorough references page. Diagrams and graphics are colorful and neatly put together.

“Changing pH in Soil” (2018)

http://vric.ucdavis.edu/pdf/Soil/ChangingpHinSoil.pdf

This website discusses the effects soil pH has on plant growth. It explains why pH is important and the ideal levels pH should be at. The website uses data tables to help further the reader’s understanding of the material they’re discussing. The website does a good job at explaining the pH, although their specificity is lacking.

“Chapter 3: Soil Chemistry”( 2005)

http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/ja/2005/ja_2005_knoepp_001.pdf?

This website has a lot of detailed information on soil chemistry. It is a very long article and is very detailed. There is no table of contents on this article to see what particular topic to research on. However, the subtitles are made clear. This article is well written and has good pictures to demonstrate what the author is talking about. It looks overwhelming when first looking at this website, but the content is useful and abundant.

Chemistry of Soil

http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&u=balt23720&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2643350213

The website is a long article that covers topics like soil components, the essential elements for plant growth, the importance of soil pH, the effects of excess nutrients on ecosystems, and the history of soil chemistry. This website separates its topic through bolded headers rather than links so it fairly easy to navigate through. There are no visuals but the website does a good job at explaining the importance of soil and what’s in the soil

“Concentration and chemical species of iron in soils from groundwater/surface water ecotones” (2009)

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/02626669509491418

This website explains what Iron is, the different species of Iron, and the tolls that an excess of Iron takes on plants. It also explains the different effects on the discharge of Iron on groundwater/runoff. This website is a field research paper, so it includes an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, references, and acknowledgments. There is a difference between the reactions of elements in soils, and in water, and this site distinguishes between the two very well.

The site is simple to maneuver, and all the information provided from it is easily comprehendible. This is a good website because it has step-by-steps, materials, and the author is credible. This website is a good source to use when researching Iron.

General Composition (2016)

 http://organiclifestyles.tamu.edu/soil/index.html

 This website focuses on the many properties of soil and what it contains. It has many lessons on the composition of soil, including soil chemistry, with topics such as pH, major elements of soil chemistry, and cation exchange. This website has many references and is from a credible source; however, it lacks pictures and diagrams.

“Humans influence soil chemistry from beyond the grave” (2017)

https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/humans-influence-soil-chemistry-from-beyond-the-grave/3007230.article

This site explains how humans are affecting soil chemistry beyond the grave. There are many different environmental factors of soil, and this shows how a specific one can cause a significant impact. Environmental factors are often the cause of changes, but disruptions are also being impacted more by humans. Due to these problems, the soil chemistry is changed.

“The Importance of Proper Soil Chemistry to a Healthy Garden” (2010)

http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/33098/landscaping/the_importance_of_proper_soil_chemistry_to_a_healthy_garden.html

 This website includes information about how important soil chemistry is to a healthy garden. This information is helpful to gardeners or home owners that want to know more. This website is also good to use because it even contains facts about the author and other websites that are related to this topic. The only problem that one could consider is the fact that there are no visual images to strengthen the topic.

"Importance of Phosphorus to Plants." (undated)

http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447043&topicorder=2&maxto=15

        This website gives information on soil phosphorous and how phosphorous in the soil regulates protein synthesis. Some positive things about this website are that its reliability was rated a 10. This is a good aspect of this website because since it is an “edu”, not anyone can just add information to the website which makes it reliable. Another positive aspect of the site is that it gives a contact address. This is important because if visitors have questions about any information on the site, they can contact the company or operators of the website to get the needed information.  A negative part of this website is there are no pictures and no bibliography.

“Indicators: Soil Chemistry” (2016)

https://www.epa.gov/national-aquatic-resource-surveys/indicators-soil-chemistry

 This is the official website for the United States Environmental Protection Agency that has indicators and maps of sampled soil sites. Along with background information it also has various articles and data. This site has a main link to environmental topics and laws with regulations.

This page is easily accessible, with a lot of facts and resources to gather information about soil chemistry. It is informative, professional, and unbiased. There is a picture of a soil sample wetland site and a caption explaining the area. The website also offers points of contact for any questions or other needed information. It is very useful in the study of soil.

“Interpreting Your Soil Test Results” (2018)

https://ag.umass.edu/soil-plant-nutrient-testing-laboratory/fact-sheets/interpreting-your-soil-test-results

This website introduces the different chemicals that are found in soil, and what each of them do to improve, or hurt the soil. The purpose of this website is to give information on how to interpret a soil test and its results. With very specific information, the website is split up with the given different chemicals, as well as other diagnostics and cures that they found in their studies on the left side of the website. The chemicals that were studied are; Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Aluminum, Lead, and other tests that are crucial for soil chemistry. Even though this website has important facts, it does not give other hyperlinks to help navigate the website for viewers.

 

“Iron (Fe) Nutrition of Plants” (2015)

 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss555

 This is a link from the University of Florida that explains the iron in different aspects of the environment. This website is very accessible and includes an option to be saved as a pdf for future uses. Data from 2009 is shown from experiments completed that find the iron concentration in fertilizers and other field cultures. This webpage includes an introduction of iron and detailed explanation of "soil science and plant physiology for diagnosing and correcting iron problems in plants and soils." The information is extensive and valuable to the understanding of soil chemistry.

"Managing pH in the Everglades Agricultural Soils" (2009).

edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss500

This professional page was created by teachers at the University of Florida. It is about soil pH in the Everglades Agricultural Area which is an area in Florida with many ranges of soil with different pH values due to the factors such as water that affect the soil. This website gives a deep analysis of the particles in the soil, fertilizer management practices, soil pH adjustment, what soil pH is, and managing pH problems. The website was created to raise awareness about soil pH and how pH levels are rising in the Everglades which is affecting the plants and animals living there. This problem has caused “organic soils” to become shallower and unable to grow crops on.

“Micronutrients” (undated)

http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/c_nutrients04.aspx

This website gives a general overview of all the micronutrients found in soil and their functions. It tells what forms the nutrients are found in inside the soil. It also goes into specifics about the different micronutrients that go through cycles in the soil. It is helpful to use when starting research because it gives general information about each of the micronutrients in the soil, and it is a good beginning website to use. If you are looking for specifics, it is not the best website to use. It also does not include visuals, so do not use this website when looking for helpful visuals.

"Milestones in Soil Chemistry"

http://www1.udel.edu/soilchem/Sparks06SoilSci.pdf

This website is about two articles have made a significant impact on soil chemistry history. Both articles have been published in the science journal Soil Science. The article tells us about the great works of Swedish soil chemist Sante Mattson, and Robinson and Holmes, who said that soils could be classified based on their silica/sesquioxide ratio. The author praises both groups of scientists for, in his opinion, the most significant milestones in soil chemistry history. Mattson drew many conclusions from his paper. That paper has been read and republished in Soil Science journal several decades after the original was published. Robinson and Holmes did research on clay mineralogy that extracted outstanding results.This website is bias. There is no confirmation from any other organization that those two articles are monumental moments in soil chemistry history. The information is reliable because it is an article from a published science journal. It listed all its references at the end of the article and remained on topic throughout the article. The author was consistent throughout the article. The contact info was displayed clearly and appropriately.

“The Nature of Phosphorous in Soil” (2009)

http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/nutrient-management/phosphorus/the-nature-of-phosphorus/

This website provides information on the make of phosphorous and its functions and tendencies in soil. It goes into great detail in describing “The Phosphorous Cycle” and the different forms of it. It is very great in its details which enables one to have a deeper understanding of phosphorous and its different functions. More visuals would have been greatly appreciated but overall it was quite detail and extensive in its information.

“Nitrogen” (2015)

http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/c_nutrients01.aspx

The University of Hawaii discusses nitrogen on the webpage, showing the many uses of nitrogen in plant life and soil ecology. Nitrogen is needed for amino acids, and amino acids make up proteins. Nitrogen also holds genetic codes. Nitrogen is most limiting to crop life, and it is also easily lost in soil. There are two main types of nitrogen including ammonium and nitrate. The plant uptake depends on the type of nitrogen. The website includes many diagrams of the nitrogen cycle and various crops. This link is very useful for the understanding of soil nutrients and productivity of plants.

“Soil Acidity and Liming” (2007)

https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/c_acidity.aspx

The purpose of this site is to inform readers the origins of acidity within the soil and the ways to manage the soil to the desired pH. This website covers specific information but is very easy to understand with friendly language. The website is organized into the following headers: effects of soil pH, origins of pH, origins of acidity, pools of soil acidity, buffering capacity, problem associated with acidity in Maui County, Management of soil acidity, liming, calcium carbonate equivalent of liming materials, neutralizing exchangeable aluminum, liming curves, application and over liming, gypsum, and tool box. The negative aspects of this site is its lack of easy navigation and visuals.

“Soil Chemistry” (2010)

www.shsu.edu/academics/agricultural-sciences-and.../2ASoilChemistry.pptx

This link leads to a power point written by a university professor. The power point gives great detail into basic soil chemistry. It begins by explaining the structure of molecules and then continues to talk about chemical reactions and what they have to do with soil. Although this site has very useful information, the layout is a bit cluttered and messy.

“Soil chemistry and mineralogy” (2018)

http://www.hutton.ac.uk/research/groups/environmental-and-biochemical-sciences/soil-chemistry-and-mineralogy

This website explains the importance of soil chemistry and mineralogy as well as The James Hutton Institute’s current goal of the creating a “productive and sustainable” eco system. The James Hutton Institute have specialists in nutrient cycling and soil mineralogy, to help support the goal of increasing food supply, energy and clean water from limited areas of land. This site educates people on ways in which the institute is going to help support then environment as well as, there techniques to sustain the environment with sufficient visuals to better explain. Unfortunately, this website does define soil chemistry, but the site defines soil as a substance. A very brief background is given about the institutes work.

“Soil, Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Management” (2018)

 https://extension2.missouri.edu/mg4

This site serves as a “master gardener core manual” providing plentiful information regarding the soil health, plant nutrients. purpose of many chemicals within the soil including: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc. The information provided is very lengthy, it could be condensed but is very friendly with many visuals including pictures, and tables. This site is full of contact information and many of the authors have reputable backgrounds. Due to the length, it is somewhat difficult to navigate.

“Soil solutions to iodine deficiency” (2016)

http://www.ign.org/taking-a-deeper-look.htm

This site educates people on soil solutions to iodine deficiency. The World Health Organization and the UNICEF in 1994 found that universal salt iodization would battle iodine deficiency. This website also introduces and explains the pro and cons of the chemical iodine in livestock, crops, and humans. It explains why morbidity rates mortality rates have increased because of the lack of iodine. Studies through the use of iodized fertilizer found that iodine concentrations in food plants have increased. This site is the Iodine Global Network that links to information about soil solutions to iodine deficiency. This page uses a mature language and clearly explains, the chemical iodine, iodine deficiency and the studies conducted to prevent iodine deficiency.

 “The Nitrogen and Phosphorous Cycle in Soils.” (2016)

https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA-2148.pdf

                This article explains how the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles work in soil. It discusses soil organic matter and the nutrients that are stored there. These nutrients include nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and magnesium. The article also touches on the topics of mineralization, biological nitrogen fixation, leaching, volatilization as NH3, denitrification. It also tells us that nitrogen and phosphorus are found in both organic and inorganic soils. This article was good because there were multiple diagrams and charts to help one further understand what was being discussed in the article. The website is also easy to navigate and the headers for each section help readers to easily find information on the topic that they are researching. As well as this, the article touches on many different topics having to do with nitrogen and phosphorus. The only complaint I have about this article is the fact that it is quite lengthy, so while it is very informative, one may grow weary of reading it quickly.

“The Nitrogen Cycle” (2001)

http://www.biology-pages.info/N/NitrogenCycle.html

 This site not only offers a good amount of information about the nitrogen cycle. It is a general overview of how the nitrogen cycle works and it also offers links to other topics that are related to the nitrogen cycle. The page also has a useful colorful diagram that illustrates the different parts of the cycle. It explains how the nitrogen cycle effects the soil. This website had a lot of information but it would have been improved by using more diagrams to describe each step of the process instead all of the steps combined together.  

"The Nitrogen Cycle." (2006)

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Life/nitrogen_cycle.html&edu=high.

 This site explains what the nitrogen cycle is and its importance to the health of the earth and its inhabitants. Lisa also goes on to divulge how plants and animals receive the nitrogen they need to survive, and paints a clear picture of the cycle. The picture alongside the text is also extremely easy to follow. Being a representative of the University of Michigan, Lisa Gardiner’s credentials are more than favorable and the site appears to be professional yet useful. There are also many links to other pages that would surely be helpful.

“Nitrogen in Soil and the Environment.” (January 2013)

http://extension.arizona.edu/sites/extension.arizona.edu/files/pubs/az1591.pdf

                This article explains how nitrogen is present in every ecosystem and that is crucial to life. It then goes into detail about the different types of nitrogen. These types of nitrogen include atmospheric nitrogen, organic soil nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen. The article then proceeds to talk about how nitrogen analyses are not difficult to perform, it can be strenuous to interpret the results of the analyses. It then talks about the nitrogen analyses that are usually conducted as well as how to conduct some of these analyses. This article was good because there were multiple diagrams and charts to help one further understand what was being discussed in the article. The only complaint I have about this article is the fact that it is quite lengthy, so while it is very informative, one may grow weary of reading it quickly.

“Nutrient Management” (2014)

http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/nutrient-management/nitrogen/understanding-nitrogen-in-soils/

This website was created by the University of Minnesota. This particular hyperlink is focused on nitrogen in the soil system. It discusses the nitrogen process and the input of nitrogen for plant growth. Furthermore it goes over nitrogen transformations and nitrogen soil loss from the system. Many factors must go in to evaluating nitrogen such as the many different sources, its mobility factor, and the soil type and climate. This hyperlink is very specific with a lot of accurate information. It is helpful for understanding nitrogen's role in soil chemistry.

“Potassium and Chloride in Soils”

http://www.ipipotash.org/udocs/Chap-2_K_and_cl_in_soils.pdf

            This PDF on the web talks about chloride and potassium in the soil. It focuses on the two chemicals individually as well as how they work together. It gives information on the source of the chemicals, their reactions in the soil, their characteristics, and doing soil tests on them. The information is lengthy and goes into very much detail. While the few images that are given are good, more pictures would be helpful. Overall, the site is very informative on chloride and potassium and their roles in the soil.

“Soil Basics Part II: Chemical Properties of Soil” (2013)

https://ag.umass.edu/vegetable/fact-sheets/soil-basics-part-ii-chemical-properties-of-soil

This site explains the basic chemical properties that soil has. First the website discusses the physical characteristics of soil, such as the texture, structure, and the organic matter that makes up the soil. It then continues to talk about the chemistry inside of the soil and the chemicals and elements one can find there, as well as addressing soil pH and what that means. Each section is separated by a bold header and is organized in an understandable way. However, this website does lack some visual features and images that would be good to help further explain each section. But overall, this website is easy to navigate and reliable.

“Soil-Calcium Depletion Linked to Acid Rain and Forest Growth in the Eastern U.S” (1999)

http://ny.water.usgs.gov/pubs/wri/wri984267/WRIR98-4267.pdf

This site is very understanding and easy to comprehend with, it caught my eye immediately. It explains and shows calcium in the forest, from the top of the trees to the bottom of the lake. It literally sets everywhere. What I like about this site is how it specifically breaks down the years in the 1990’s and explains what happens with calcium. It is slightly different from the others it talks about acid rain growth linked to soil calcium as appose to just the calcium and what it is. It specifies how the acidic rain in our area increases and the relativeness to soil calcium. The images and visual sources in this site are so very helpful and it makes the site just that more interesting and better understanding. The references stood out as well there were so many cited, which could really help a viewer. The color and creativeness is user friendly. The length of the information and the information itself seem to be accurate and very specific.

“Soil Calcium: Magnesium Ratios”(2003)

http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/2003/4-21-2003/camg.html

This informative article explains the necessary role of calcium and magnesium in soil and the effects of their presence. It specifically focuses about the ratio between calcium and magnesium and gives the method for the calculation as well. The article also has charts that show the effects of the applied amount of potassium, calcium, magnesium, etc to further inform the readers about their result in being used in the soil. It also discusses crop production rates and problems and relates them to nutrients in the soil. This article would be ideal for researches that requires data with elements in soil such as calcium and magnesium.

 “Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics.” (2011)

http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/major-research-topics/major-research-topics/soil-carbon-and-nitrogen-dynamics

This site explains how soil is serves as a source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the environment. It also displays the concerns that are present about how soil is progressively becoming a CO2 source as the climate temperatures increase which leads to a rise in soil disruption. The article proceeds to talk about the affect nitrogen has on ecosystems. In ecosystems with mild climates, nitrogen often limits plant growth. There is a possibility that nitrogen pollutes marine ecosystems as well as drinking water. The article then discusses the research that is being done by the writers of the article on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics.

This website was good because it is very easy to navigate as well as very professional. However, I wish the authors had gone into more detail about the purpose of carbon and nitrogen in the soil.

“Soil Chemical Properties” (Undated)

http://organiclifestyles.tamu.edu/soilbasics/soilchemical.html

      This website is an excellent source for the understanding of soil chemistry. The site is clear and very well written. Topics covered on the page include “Major Elements,” “Cation Exchange,” and “Soil pH.” Each topic that is covered is fully explained and examples are given to ensure that the reader will understand what is being discussed. While there are no links provided on the page, the site itself has links that allow for easy navigation. The web page is simple and has minimal distractions if any at all. It is a very professional website and excellent for research.

"Soil Chemistry" (undated)

http://lawr.ucdavis.edu/classes/ssc102/section1.pdf

This website gives very specific details and in-depth information about general soil. There are advanced equations about soil and it's components. There are things to know and things to remember also clearly stated on the webpage. Even though the website contains many helpful bits, it is 3 pages long and a little wordy at times. It is not a simple document to understand because of the vocabulary, however it does solidify the reliability of the website because it proves that the author knows what he is talking about.

"Soil Chemistry"

http://www.soils4teachers.org/chemistry

This site gives an overview of different aspects of soil chemistry including soil pH, soil organic matter interactions, and ion exchanges. This site has very useful visuals. The page has a glossary link that contains many terms related to soil chemistry. This site would be very helpful for high school or middle school research but may be too brief in some topics for higher level research.

"Soil Chemistry" (undated)

http://web.njit.edu/~kebbekus/Soil%20chem%20notes.htm

Although there is a lot of information thrown at you at once, it gives exact percentages of soil components and explains the effects of soil clearly and precisely. The website is not overwhelming despite the great amount of information displayed on the website.

Soil Chemistry" (2016).

www.ars.usda.gov/pacific-west-area/pendleton/swcr/docs/soilchemistry. 

This site talks about soil chemistry and different experiments done. The visuals are very good for this site. There is easy access to contact the researchers of the different projects done. This site was updated last year, so it is very recent.

“Soil Chemistry" (2016).

http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/energy-government-and-defense-magazines/soil-chemistry

In this website, there is a report on soil chemistry with an introduction, historical background, and impact. This is an overview of how soil chemistry can be affected and adds some vocabulary related to it. The outline of soil chemistry provides an overview of the information needed with useful links that relate to the topic. It is easy to navigate and there are several other pages within the website to use.

"Soil Chemistry: Acidic and Basic Soils - Buffering" (undated)

http://lawr.ucdavis.edu/classes/ssc102/Section8.pdf

This website is very useful because it gives basic information about soil chemistry and illustrations. They include pre-assessment questions, formulas, and reading about each topic. This is very easy to navigate and a good resource.

"“Soil Chemistry and Fertility.” (undated)

https://casfs.ucsc.edu/about/publications/Teaching-Organic-Farming/PDF-downloads/2.2-soil-chemistry.pdf

This PDF document gives an introduction to the basics of soil chemistry, and explains how soil chemistry is related to soil fertility. The document comes from the Center for Agroecology & Sustainable Food Systems, which is a Center within the Social Sciences Division at UC Santa Cruz. The document is 30 pages long and reads like a textbook; there is a table of contents which guides the reader to specific pages for the topics they want to learn about. The information is well structured and detailed. It’s organized so that there is always a paragraph’s worth of information to describe a term related to the topic of the chapter. One potential setback of this source is that there are no links attached. However, there are several references at the bottom of the document. This source would be great for someone who wants to learn the basic components of soil chemistry and how it connects to agriculture.

“Soil Chemistry and Nutrition of North American Red Spruce-Fir Stands: Evidence for Recent Change” (1992)

http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/wats_facpub/24/

This article discusses how, in the eastern area of North America, the effect of acidic deposition on the soil may affect nutrient availability and root function. This has also caused the decline of red spruce. The soil data that was taken shown acid came with plant take up, which contributed to the loss of cations. This website is a trusted source because the information was given from a university. This website has everything labeled and clearly visible.

“Soil and Soil Solution Chemistry” (1994)

http://dge.stanford.edu/SCOPE/SCOPE_51/SCOPE_51_5_Mulder_107-132.pdf

This website talks about chemical reactions in the soil and how they affect the concentrations of the large amount of solutes in stream water. A positive critique is that it uses soil ecology vocabulary. It is also very specific and talks about reactions with different chemicals in soil. However it is sometimes hard to follow what the page is talking about because it can be very detailed. It also doesn’t explain the unfamiliar words it is using.

Soil pH

http://soilquality.org/indicators/soil_ph.html#

There are many tabs and links to browse through all relating to properties of soil and giving an understanding for them. There are appropriate visuals spaced throughout the website, but the website could be improved if there were more. Some topics the website covers that could be useful for understanding soil chemistry are soil quality basics, value of soil, biodiversity, soil functions, and nutrient cycling. This websites main focus is on the quality of soil, and it has data tables to show how certain crops grow in certain soil.

“Soil pH and Salinity.”

http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/soils/ph.html#ph

This site had some good visuals and provided some important information about soil chemistry regarding pH and salinity. It explained the importance of soil pH to plants. The site did not have a bibliography, but it was easy to follow and provided a lot of information. It was connected with a university, so the information was very reliable. It was a very good site overall.

"Soil pH: What it Means." (1993)

http://www.esf.edu/pubprog/brochure/soilph/soilph.htm

This website has two aims: a) to explain what pH is in terms of soil and b) to explain the effect of different pH's on the soil ecosystem. The website offers a good explanation of the pH scale, instructions on how to test for soil pH, and a lengthy description of the effect of pH to nutrients, minerals, and growth -focusing specifically on the pH’s effect to the solubility of phosphorus, aluminum, iron, and manganese. Also mentioned in the site, though briefly, are how well different acidities suit plants and the influence of soil pH on microorganisms. This site is a suitable introduction to soil pH. It covers a variety of information concerning pH and is therefore a great starting point for research. However, due to the amount of information present, the content felt more like a detailed outline than a thorough description of this topic. Though the information was accurate, it was not comprehensive enough.  Along with this, it did not provide many preferable traits such as links, references, or a contact address.

“Soil pH Effects on Nutrient Availability in the Everglades Agricultural Area” (2009)

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SS500

This site makes a connection between pH and plant nutrients.  Specifically, it uses the Everglades region to explain ways to fix pH if the conditions are not prime for plant growth.  The site is very reliable and explains the connection between pH in a logical and concise manner.  The site has few links, and no visuals, but these do not make the less informative.

"Soil Physical Damage: Summary of Issues." (undated)

http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/aweg/soilphysicaldamage.pdf

This website is very useful because it is easy to navigate, and includes a lot of important information about soil chemistry. It is very informative and explains summaries of harmful things that damage the soil. This can be used to expand knowledge and prevent from damaging the soil and keeping it healthy.

Soil Physical and Chemical Properties (2014)

http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/nj/home/?cid=nrcs141p2_018993

This website contains very detailed descriptions and explanations of both physical properties and chemical properties of soil. There are many detailed sections with diagrams and pictures, but there are not many links and references. The subjects of this website include: soil structure, soil texture, cation exchange capacity, and soil reaction (pH).

Soil Pollution (2009)

http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/soil/

This source is very informative relating to the topic of soil pollution. It includes information about topics such as, soil pollution construction, soil pollution and its effects, soil pollution and its causes, soil pollution facts and soil poisoning prevention, and soil pollution examples. This site is very detailed and covers many topics, but lacks pictures and diagrams. 

“Soils- Nitrogen as a Nutrient” (undated)

http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447042&topicorder=2&maxto=8

This website gives information about the role and effects of nitrogen in the soil. It tells the reader about the forms in which nitrogen in soil is found, the nitrogen cycle, the effects of nitrogen on the surrounding plant life, etc. It gives links to other websites that give information about nitrogen and soil, including many about nitrogen and its role in crops and agriculture. This is a good resource if you are looking for specific information about nitrogen in soil.

“Sources and Impacts of Contaminants in Soils” (2009).

http://cwmi.css.cornell.edu/sourcesandimpacts.pdf

This website focuses on soil contaminants and their impact on soil and people. It explains what is effected by soil contaminants. This website is a reliable source from the Cornell Waste Management Institute. There are references located on the bottom of the website where more information on certain topics can be found. The website is easy to follow and organized by topic.

“The Water Cycle: From the Sky to the Land and Back Again” (Undated)

http://www.propertiesofmatter.si.edu/Water_Cycle.html

This site makes an introduction of how rain forms to it falling to the land and being absorbed in to the soil. This website is very useful for early teachings of soil chemistry. This is also a very reliable source because it is controlled by a responsible group which contains an “.edu” web source. This website credentials have a good quality, easy navigation, understandable for a younger perspective.

“Understanding Nitrogen in Soils” (2018)

https://extension.umn.edu/nitrogen/understanding-nitrogen-soils

This site is about how nitrogen behaves in the soil, and explains ways to manage the nitrogen to have better crop production. The Site is from the University of Minnesota Extension. For every topic on this page, there are sub-topics for the reader to click on to reveal more detailed information about that topic. The information is detailed and clear, and the way the sub-topics are set up makes it easy for the reader to navigate through this page. The page goes over the basics of nitrogen, as well as how nitrogen is incorporated into the soil for plant growth, the transformations nitrogen undergoes in the soil, and the ways in which nitrogen levels can decrease in the soil. The site would be great for anyone seeking a better understanding of the role nitrogen plays in the soil, with a focus on how it influences crops and agriculture.

“Understanding Phosphorus Fertilizers” (2018)

https://extension.umn.edu/phosphorus-and-potassium/understanding-phosphorus-fertilizers

This page is about phosphorus (P) fertilizers. It comes from the University of Minnesota Extension. The site explains how the P fertilizers are manufactured, the different types of P fertilizers, it compares organic P fertilizers to inorganic P fertilizers, and it talks about how crops respond to the P fertilizers. For every topic on this page, there are sub-topics for the reader to click on to reveal more detailed information about that topic. The information is concise and to the point, and the way the sub-topics are set up makes it easy for the reader to navigate through this page. Sometimes the topic titles aren’t easily comprehensible for someone who has never learned about P fertilizers before, but it makes sense if the reader reads through everything. This is a great site to look at for someone who is curious to learn about agriculture and the chemicals that humans put into the soil

"What Makes Soil, Soil?" (2014)

www.soils.org

            This website contains information about the texture, structure, and color of soil.  The information is easy to read and comprehend, and there are many useful links. This website would have been better if there was more information.  The available information is useful, but some information could be added.

"Zinc." (undated)

http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447044&topicorder=4&maxto=7

        This website gives information on soil zinc, such as that soil zinc is used to help plants. Some positive things about this article are that it gives many links to get more information which is useful because visitors can find even more information from the different branches of information. Another positive aspect of the website is that it is short and precise but gives a good amount of information. This is a positive aspect because visitors can get information quickly and not have to search hardly for them. A negative part of his website is that there was no bibliography and there not many images at all besides a data table.