“Aluminum Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants” (1995) 


 This PDF on the web is focused on aluminum in the soil, particularly its toxicity and tolerance. It is very informative and goes into great detail. It is a little bit on the lengthy side, and the information is very specific with an at times confusing vocabulary. However, it is still easy to navigate and find what you are looking for by using the subtitles. The bibliography and credentials are extensive.

“Basic Soil Chemistry: pH” (undated)


This website is about pH, one of the basics of soil chemistry. This website is good because it starts with basic information, which explains what you should know about pH before you begin. It also has a sidebar to inform the objectives, skills, and supplies. There is also a step by step of a lab that might want to be used. The website is easily maneuvered, and very simple. It has clear instructions, and an example data table for beginners.       

"Basic Soil Components" 


There are no links to other information because the information is separated by a bolded header and diagrams. Some of the topics the website covers are minerals, water, organic matter, gases, and micro-organisms. The websites has a few visuals; enough to help understand the topic. This website would be useful for gaining a basic understanding of soil chemistry. Another website would be needed to go further into understanding it.                                                                                   

“Basic Soil Properties” (2005)


This website focuses on the topics of soil properties, soil textures, soil chemical properties, soil organic matter, and microbes. The website is easy to read and follow. It has appropriate visuals and references. The website explains the relationships and the effects that chemicals will have on different aspects in the soil.

“Carbon Cycle.”  (2003)


This easy to maneuver website is colorful and eye-catching, attracting the reader to it right away. There are brief descriptions in a simple manner that includes good descriptions and information of the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles that happens partly in the soil. There are good links as well as a thorough references page. Diagrams and graphics are colorful and neatly put together.

“Chapter 3: Soil Chemistry”( 2005)


This website has a lot of detailed information on soil chemistry. It is a very long article and is very detailed. There is no table of contents on this article to see what particular topic to research on. However, the subtitles are made clear. This article is well written and has good pictures to demonstrate what the author is talking about. It looks overwhelming when first looking at this website, but the content is useful and abundant. This website is an 8.7+.

"Chemical Properties of Soil" (2004).


This site, created by scientists at the University of Washington State, gives a good overview of the chemical properties of soil using a few pictures and formulas. The site is easy to navigate and visually appealing. There are different topic titles with information underneath, for example; “chemical properties of soil”, “soil pH”, “soil salinity”, and “cation-exchange capacity”. In “soil ph”, it gives a brief overview of what is considered acidic, basic, and neutral with a visual representation. Overall this site gets a 7.

Chemistry of Soil


The website is a long article that covers topics like soil components, the essential elements for plant growth, the importance of soil pH, the effects of excess nutrients on ecosystems, and the history of soil chemistry. This website separates its topic through bolded headers rather than links so it fairly easy to navigate through. There are no visuals but the website does a good job at explaining the importance of soil and what’s in the soil

“Concentration and chemical species of iron in soils from groundwater/surface water ecotones” (2009)


This website explains what Iron is, the different species of Iron, and the tolls that an excess of Iron takes on plants. It also explains the different effects on the discharge of Iron on groundwater/runoff. This website is a field research paper, so it includes an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, references, and acknowledgments. There is a difference between the reactions of elements in soils, and in water, and this site distinguishes between the two very well.

The site is simple to maneuver, and all the information provided from it is easily comprehendible. This is a good website because it has step-by-steps, materials, and the author is credible. This website is a good source to use when researching Iron.

General Composition (2016)


 This website focuses on the many properties of soil and what it contains. It has many lessons on the composition of soil, including soil chemistry, with topics such as pH, major elements of soil chemistry, and cation exchange. This website has many references and is from a credible source; however, it lacks pictures and diagrams.

“Humans influence soil chemistry from beyond the grave” (2017)


This site explains how humans are affecting soil chemistry beyond the grave. There are many different environmental factors of soil, and this shows how a specific one can cause a significant impact. Environmental factors are often the cause of changes, but disruptions are also being impacted more by humans. Due to these problems, the soil chemistry is changed. Overall this site scores a 7.8- on a scale of 1-10.

“The Importance of Proper Soil Chemistry to a Healthy Garden” (2010)


 This website includes information about how important soil chemistry is to a healthy garden. This information is helpful to gardeners or home owners that want to know more. This website is also good to use because it even contains facts about the author and other websites that are related to this topic. The only problem that one could consider is the fact that there are no visual images to strengthen the topic.

"Importance of Phosphorus to Plants." (undated)


        This website gives information on soil phosphorous and how phosphorous in the soil regulates protein synthesis. Some positive things about this website are that its reliability was rated a 10. This is a good aspect of this website because since it is an “edu”, not anyone can just add information to the website which makes it reliable. Another positive aspect of the site is that it gives a contact address. This is important because if visitors have questions about any information on the site, they can contact the company or operators of the website to get the needed information.  A negative part of this website is there are no pictures and no bibliography. This website is rated an average of 8.3.

“Indicators: Soil Chemistry” (2016)


 This is the official website for the United States Environmental Protection Agency that has indicators and maps of sampled soil sites. Along with background information it also has various articles and data. This site has a main link to environmental topics and laws with regulations.

This page is easily accessible, with a lot of facts and resources to gather information about soil chemistry. It is informative, professional, and unbiased. There is a picture of a soil sample wetland site and a caption explaining the area. The website also offers points of contact for any questions or other needed information. It is very useful in the study of soil. Overall, this site scores a 8.3+ on a scale of 1-10.

“Iron (Fe) Nutrition of Plants” (2015)


 This is a link from the University of Florida that explains the iron in different aspects of the environment. This website is very accessible and includes an option to be saved as a pdf for future uses. Data from 2009 is shown from experiments completed that find the iron concentration in fertilizers and other field cultures. This webpage includes an introduction of iron and detailed explanation of "soil science and plant physiology for diagnosing and correcting iron problems in plants and soils." The information is extensive and valuable to the understanding of soil chemistry.

"Managing pH in the Everglades Agricultural Soils" (2009).


This professional page was created by teachers at the University of Florida. It is about soil pH in the Everglades Agricultural Area which is an area in Florida with many ranges of soil with different pH values due to the factors such as water that affect the soil. This website gives a deep analysis of the particles in the soil, fertilizer management practices, soil pH adjustment, what soil pH is, and managing pH problems. The website was created to raise awareness about soil pH and how pH levels are rising in the Everglades which is affecting the plants and animals living there. This problem has caused “organic soils” to become shallower and unable to grow crops on.  Overall, this site scores a 7.1-.

“Micronutrients” (undated)


This website gives a general overview of all the micronutrients found in soil and their functions. It tells what forms the nutrients are found in inside the soil. It also goes into specifics about the different micronutrients that go through cycles in the soil. It is helpful to use when starting research because it gives general information about each of the micronutrients in the soil, and it is a good beginning website to use. If you are looking for specifics, it is not the best website to use. It also does not include visuals, so do not use this website when looking for helpful visuals.

"Milestones in Soil Chemistry"


This website is about two articles have made a significant impact on soil chemistry history. Both articles have been published in the science journal Soil Science. The article tells us about the great works of Swedish soil chemist Sante Mattson, and Robinson and Holmes, who said that soils could be classified based on their silica/sesquioxide ratio. The author praises both groups of scientists for, in his opinion, the most significant milestones in soil chemistry history. Mattson drew many conclusions from his paper. That paper has been read and republished in Soil Science journal several decades after the original was published. Robinson and Holmes did research on clay mineralogy that extracted outstanding results.This website is bias. There is no confirmation from any other organization that those two articles are monumental moments in soil chemistry history. The information is reliable because it is an article from a published science journal. It listed all its references at the end of the article and remained on topic throughout the article. The author was consistent throughout the article. The contact info was displayed clearly and appropriately.

“The Nature of Phosphorous in Soil” (2009)


This website provides information on the make of phosphorous and its functions and tendencies in soil. It goes into great detail in describing “The Phosphorous Cycle” and the different forms of it. It is very great in its details which enables one to have a deeper understanding of phosphorous and its different functions. More visuals would have been greatly appreciated but overall it was quite detail and extensive in its information. The rating I gave was a 8.5+

“Nitrogen” (2015)


The University of Hawaii discusses nitrogen on the webpage, showing the many uses of nitrogen in plant life and soil ecology. Nitrogen is needed for amino acids, and amino acids make up proteins. Nitrogen also holds genetic codes. Nitrogen is most limiting to crop life, and it is also easily lost in soil. There are two main types of nitrogen including ammonium and nitrate. The plant uptake depends on the type of nitrogen. The website includes many diagrams of the nitrogen cycle and various crops. This link is very useful for the understanding of soil nutrients and productivity of plants.

 “The Nitrogen and Phosphorous Cycle in Soils.” (2016)


                This article explains how the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles work in soil. It discusses soil organic matter and the nutrients that are stored there. These nutrients include nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and magnesium. The article also touches on the topics of mineralization, biological nitrogen fixation, leaching, volatilization as NH3, denitrification. It also tells us that nitrogen and phosphorus are found in both organic and inorganic soils. This article was good because there were multiple diagrams and charts to help one further understand what was being discussed in the article. The website is also easy to navigate and the headers for each section help readers to easily find information on the topic that they are researching. As well as this, the article touches on many different topics having to do with nitrogen and phosphorus. The only complaint I have about this article is the fact that it is quite lengthy, so while it is very informative, one may grow weary of reading it quickly.

“The Nitrogen Cycle” (2001)


 This site not only offers a good amount of information about the nitrogen cycle. It is a general overview of how the nitrogen cycle works and it also offers links to other topics that are related to the nitrogen cycle. The page also has a useful colorful diagram that illustrates the different parts of the cycle. It explains how the nitrogen cycle effects the soil. This website had a lot of information but it would have been improved by using more diagrams to describe each step of the process instead all of the steps combined together.  

"The Nitrogen Cycle." (2006)


 This site explains what the nitrogen cycle is and its importance to the health of the earth and its inhabitants. Lisa also goes on to divulge how plants and animals receive the nitrogen they need to survive, and paints a clear picture of the cycle. The picture alongside the text is also extremely easy to follow. Being a representative of the University of Michigan, Lisa Gardiner’s credentials are more than favorable and the site appears to be professional yet useful. There are also many links to other pages that would surely be helpful.

“Nitrogen in Soil and the Environment.” (January 2013)


                This article explains how nitrogen is present in every ecosystem and that is crucial to life. It then goes into detail about the different types of nitrogen. These types of nitrogen include atmospheric nitrogen, organic soil nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen. The article then proceeds to talk about how nitrogen analyses are not difficult to perform, it can be strenuous to interpret the results of the analyses. It then talks about the nitrogen analyses that are usually conducted as well as how to conduct some of these analyses.

                This article was good because there were multiple diagrams and charts to help one further understand what was being discussed in the article. The only complaint I have about this article is the fact that it is quite lengthy, so while it is very informative, one may grow weary of reading it quickly.

“Nutrient Management” (2014)


This website was created by the University of Minnesota. This particular hyperlink is focused on nitrogen in the soil system. It discusses the nitrogen process and the input of nitrogen for plant growth. Furthermore it goes over nitrogen transformations and nitrogen soil loss from the system. Many factors must go in to evaluating nitrogen such as the many different sources, its mobility factor, and the soil type and climate. This hyperlink is very specific with a lot of accurate information. It is helpful for understanding nitrogen's role in soil chemistry.



This website explains the effects and results of specifically phosphorus in soil. Many fertilizers are known to contain phosphorus which ultimately results in better crops. Calcium phosphates are made in soil with a pH greater than 7. This page is easily accessible when one is looking for the results of phosphorus in soil. It is the 8th topic taken from the main website which explains that nutrients and fertilizers of soil. There are other hyperlinks that can be found at the bottom of the page that explain the characteristics of phosphorus in various aspects of the environment. The website also contains diagrams and data tables describing phosphorus in different situations.

“Potassium and Chloride in Soils”


            This PDF on the web talks about chloride and potassium in the soil. It focuses on the two chemicals individually as well as how they work together. It gives information on the source of the chemicals, their reactions in the soil, their characteristics, and doing soil tests on them. The information is lengthy and goes into very much detail. While the few images that are given are good, more pictures would be helpful. Overall, the site is very informative on chloride and potassium and their roles in the soil.

"Soil Basics Part II: Chemical Properties of Soil" (1997)


 This website contains information about soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrients in the soil, and other elements of soil chemistry.  The website is easy to navigate and there are many helpful links.  This website would be more helpful if there were more pictures and diagrams, which could make the information clearer. It also would have been better if the page had been updated recently. I rated this website as 7.8+.

“Soil-Calcium Depletion Linked to Acid Rain and Forest Growth in the Eastern U.S” (1999)


This site is very understanding and easy to comprehend with, it caught my eye immediately. It explains and shows calcium in the forest, from the top of the trees to the bottom of the lake. It literally sets everywhere. What I like about this site is how it specifically breaks down the years in the 1990’s and explains what happens with calcium. It is slightly different from the others it talks about acid rain growth linked to soil calcium as appose to just the calcium and what it is. It specifies how the acidic rain in our area increases and the relativeness to soil calcium. The images and visual sources in this site are so very helpful and it makes the site just that more interesting and better understanding. The references stood out as well there were so many cited, which could really help a viewer. The color and creativeness is user friendly. The length of the information and the information itself seem to be accurate and very specific.

“Soil Calcium: Magnesium Ratios”(2003)


This informative article explains the necessary role of calcium and magnesium in soil and the effects of their presence. It specifically focuses about the ratio between calcium and magnesium and gives the method for the calculation as well. The article also has charts that show the effects of the applied amount of potassium, calcium, magnesium, etc to further inform the readers about their result in being used in the soil. It also discusses crop production rates and problems and relates them to nutrients in the soil. This article would be ideal for researches that requires data with elements in soil such as calcium and magnesium.

 “Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics.” (2011)


This site explains how soil is serves as a source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the environment. It also displays the concerns that are present about how soil is progressively becoming a CO2 source as the climate temperatures increase which leads to a rise in soil disruption. The article proceeds to talk about the affect nitrogen has on ecosystems. In ecosystems with mild climates, nitrogen often limits plant growth. There is a possibility that nitrogen pollutes marine ecosystems as well as drinking water. The article then discusses the research that is being done by the writers of the article on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics.

This website was good because it is very easy to navigate as well as very professional. However, I wish the authors had gone into more detail about the purpose of carbon and nitrogen in the soil.

“Soil Chemical Properties” (Undated)


      This website is an excellent source for the understanding of soil chemistry. The site is clear and very well written. Topics covered on the page include “Major Elements,” “Cation Exchange,” and “Soil pH.” Each topic that is covered is fully explained and examples are given to ensure that the reader will understand what is being discussed. While there are no links provided on the page, the site itself has links that allow for easy navigation. The web page is simple and has minimal distractions if any at all. It is a very professional website and excellent for research.

"Soil Chemical Properties" (2004).

This site tells about chemical properties, soil pH, Soil salinity, and Cation-Exchange Capacity. The site is split up into those 4 categories and gives appropriate amount of detail for each. This site was made by Washington State University and has few, but good visuals and charts to better understand the information given. This is good website, but there is no bibliography, so I give it a 7 on a scale of 1-10.

"Soil Chemical Properties"


            This site briefly discusses soil properties and soil colloids. It also provides definitions of molecular terms relating to soil chemistry. This site is helpful because it is easy to understand. The information may be too brief for most research papers. However, this site would be great to use as a starting point for research, especially because it explains terms that would be very useful for more detailed searches.

“Soil Chemistry” (2014)


This site discusses the general basics on what one might find if they were to test their soil. It gives brief descriptions of elements such as, organic matter, pH levels, and phosphorous. It also shows the benefits of those elements on the environment. It is quite helpful if one needs to learn the basics of certain elements are found in the soil. It would have been better if some more pictures that related to the topics were added. The rating I gave rating was 7-

"Soil Chemistry" (undated)


This website gives very specific details and in-depth information about general soil. There are advanced equations about soil and it's components. There are things to know and things to remember also clearly stated on the webpage. Even though the website contains many helpful bits, it is 3 pages long and a little wordy at times. It is not a simple document to understand because of the vocabulary, however it does solidify the reliability of the website because it proves that the author knows what he is talking about.

"Soil Chemistry"


This site gives an overview of different aspects of soil chemistry including soil pH, soil organic matter interactions, and ion exchanges. This site has very useful visuals. The page has a glossary link that contains many terms related to soil chemistry. This site would be very helpful for high school or middle school research but may be too brief in some topics for higher level research.

"Soil Chemistry" (undated)


Although there is a lot of information thrown at you at once, it gives exact percentages of soil components and explains the effects of soil clearly and precisely. The website is not overwhelming despite the great amount of information displayed on the website.

Soil Chemistry" (2016).


This site talks about soil chemistry and different experiments done. The visuals are very good for this site. There is easy access to contact the researchers of the different projects done. This site was updated last year, so it is very recent. It has an overall score of 7.2 on the 1-10 scale.

“Soil Chemistry" (2016).


In this website, there is a report on soil chemistry with an introduction, historical background, and impact. This is an overview of how soil chemistry can be affected and adds some vocabulary related to it. The outline of soil chemistry provides an overview of the information needed with useful links that relate to the topic. It is easy to navigate and there are several other pages within the website to use. Overall this site scores a 7.2- on a scale of 1-10.

"Soil Chemistry: Acidic and Basic Soils - Buffering" (undated)


This website is very useful because it gives basic information about soil chemistry and illustrations. They include pre-assessment questions, formulas, and reading about each topic. This is very easy to navigate and a good resource.

“Soil Chemistry and Nutrition of North American Red Spruce-Fir Stands: Evidence for Recent Change” (1992)


This article discusses how, in the eastern area of North America, the effect of acidic deposition on the soil may affect nutrient availability and root function. This has also caused the decline of red spruce. The soil data that was taken shown acid came with plant take up, which contributed to the loss of cations. This website is a trusted source because the information was given from a university. This website has everything labeled and clearly visible.

"Soil Formation" (undated).


This site talks about soil formation, pH, acidity, and plant nutrients. The visuals are good for this site because there are diagrams and charts to go along with the information. This site is an .edu, so it is very reliable. However, there is no date for this site, so it is given a 7 on a scale of 1-10.

“Soil and Soil Solution Chemistry” (1994)


This website talks about chemical reactions in the soil and how they affect the concentrations of the large amount of solutes in stream water. A positive critique is that it uses soil ecology vocabulary. It is also very specific and talks about reactions with different chemicals in soil. However it is sometimes hard to follow what the page is talking about because it can be very detailed. It also doesn’t explain the unfamiliar words it is using. This website is a 7.6+.

Soil pH


There are many tabs and links to browse through all relating to properties of soil and giving an understanding for them. There are appropriate visuals spaced throughout the website, but the website could be improved if there were more. Some topics the website covers that could be useful for understanding soil chemistry are soil quality basics, value of soil, biodiversity, soil functions, and nutrient cycling. This websites main focus is on the quality of soil, and it has data tables to show how certain crops grow in certain soil.

“Soil pH and Salinity.”


This site had some good visuals and provided some important information about soil chemistry regarding pH and salinity. It explained the importance of soil pH to plants. The site did not have a bibliography, but it was easy to follow and provided a lot of information. It was connected with a university, so the information was very reliable. It was a very good site overall.

"Soil pH: What it Means." (1993)


This website has two aims: a) to explain what pH is in terms of soil and b) to explain the effect of different pH's on the soil ecosystem. The website offers a good explanation of the pH scale, instructions on how to test for soil pH, and a lengthy description of the effect of pH to nutrients, minerals, and growth -focusing specifically on the pH’s effect to the solubility of phosphorus, aluminum, iron, and manganese. Also mentioned in the site, though briefly, are how well different acidities suit plants and the influence of soil pH on microorganisms. This site is a suitable introduction to soil pH. It covers a variety of information concerning pH and is therefore a great starting point for research. However, due to the amount of information present, the content felt more like a detailed outline than a thorough description of this topic. Though the information was accurate, it was not comprehensive enough.  Along with this, it did not provide many preferable traits such as links, references, or a contact address.

“Soil pH Effects on Nutrient Availability in the Everglades Agricultural Area” (2009)


This site makes a connection between pH and plant nutrients.  Specifically, it uses the Everglades region to explain ways to fix pH if the conditions are not prime for plant growth.  The site is very reliable and explains the connection between pH in a logical and concise manner.  The site has few links, and no visuals, but these do not make the less informative.

"Soil Physical Damage: Summary of Issues." (undated)


This website is very useful because it is easy to navigate, and includes a lot of important information about soil chemistry. It is very informative and explains summaries of harmful things that damage the soil. This can be used to expand knowledge and prevent from damaging the soil and keeping it healthy.

Soil Physical and Chemical Properties (2014)


This website contains very detailed descriptions and explanations of both physical properties and chemical properties of soil. There are many detailed sections with diagrams and pictures, but there are not many links and references. The subjects of this website include: soil structure, soil texture, cation exchange capacity, and soil reaction (pH).

Soil Pollution (2009)


This source is very informative relating to the topic of soil pollution. It includes information about topics such as, soil pollution construction, soil pollution and its effects, soil pollution and its causes, soil pollution facts and soil poisoning prevention, and soil pollution examples. This site is very detailed and covers many topics, but lacks pictures and diagrams. 

“Soils- Nitrogen as a Nutrient” (undated)


This website gives information about the role and effects of nitrogen in the soil. It tells the reader about the forms in which nitrogen in soil is found, the nitrogen cycle, the effects of nitrogen on the surrounding plant life, etc. It gives links to other websites that give information about nitrogen and soil, including many about nitrogen and its role in crops and agriculture. This is a good resource if you are looking for specific information about nitrogen in soil.

“Sources and Impacts of Contaminants in Soils” (2009).


This website focuses on soil contaminants and their impact on soil and people. It explains what is effected by soil contaminants. This website is a reliable source from the Cornell Waste Management Institute. There are references located on the bottom of the website where more information on certain topics can be found. The website is easy to follow and organized by topic.

“SULIS- Sustainable Urban Landscape Information Series” (2006)


The main theme of this website is to inform the reader about soil pH and the need for different pH values.  The site is very reliable and has low bias, high credentials, and is clear and stays on topic.  However, many of the sites that the website references are no longer available, so checking the sources is difficult.  The site does a very good job of describing the need for, cause of, and products of difference values of pH in soil. 

“The Water Cycle: From the Sky to the Land and Back Again” (Undated)


This site makes an introduction of how rain forms to it falling to the land and being absorbed in to the soil. This website is very useful for early teachings of soil chemistry. This is also a very reliable source because it is controlled by a responsible group which contains an “.edu” web source. This website credentials have a good quality, easy navigation, understandable for a younger perspective.

"What Makes Soil, Soil?" (2014)


            This website contains information about the texture, structure, and color of soil.  The information is easy to read and comprehend, and there are many useful links. This website would have been better if there was more information.  The available information is useful, but some information could be added.  I rated this website as 8.9+.

"Zinc." (undated)


        This website gives information on soil zinc, such as that soil zinc is used to help plants. Some positive things about this article are that it gives many links to get more information which is useful because visitors can find even more information from the different branches of information. Another positive aspect of the website is that it is short and precise but gives a good amount of information. This is a positive aspect because visitors can get information quickly and not have to search hardly for them. A negative part of his website is that there was no bibliography and there not many images at all besides a data table. This website it rated an average of 8.3.