“A Guide to Microinvertebrate Life in the Leaf Litter"


This site is a highly recommendable resource for anyone looking for information on different types of invertebrates. This site allows readers to distinguish invertebrates from one another by using visuals and understandable descriptions. The titles on this site are clear and allow for easy access when looking to find specific invertebrates. There are no specific dates for when this site was published/written, but the pictures, and the information, are still a highly recommendable source. Overall, this site is an incredible source to get started on research on invertebrates. I would rate this site a 8- on a scale from 1-10. 

“Abundance of Soil Mites (Arachnida: Acari) In a Natural Soil of Central Argentina” (2005)


This site is a scientific study about how agricultural practices affect the abundance of mites in the soil. The “abundance” of the mites were measured in  a cultivated crop field and in an uncultivated plot adjacent to the cultivated field. The site is extremely reliable is easily navigable and well organized. It is not a high-school level paper but is useful for picking out accurate, reliable information and to use as reference.

"Acari" (2015)


Acari, also known as mites, are invertebrates that are a part of the arachnid family. In the second paragraph of the website, the structure and the size of the mite is explained. There are three different categories of mites, oribatida, mesostigmata, and prostigmata. These mites can dwell on soil, plants, mosses, lichens, or debris. This website can be read easily, it is a good length, has pictures of the mites, and many linked websites. Although, there were books sited at the end which were not accessible through the website. Overall, this is a good website with useful information.

Animals and Soil in Arizona.” (1985)


This website contains precise information about different types of soil invertebrates. Useful information is provided on how to detect “special features of soil that are fashioned by soil invertebrates” (Hendricks, 1985). It also has an overview of how the animals and soil in Arizona interact. The site is extremely credible because the information is excerpted from the book Arizona Soils and is collaborated by a list of authors. However, this work was published in 1985 and is therefore not very current.

“Ants of the North Quabbin Region” (2008)


This website provides information about ants, specifically in the Quabbin region. This site provides links to different sections which provides more detailed information on topics like body structure, life cycle, role in the environment, and specific types of ants. There are many helpful pictures that help to explain or show the information the site talks about. For example, there are pictures that show the different types of ants in the region, body parts, as well as examples of ant nests. Some of the pictures are links to provide further information. Overall, this site is easy to navigate. There is a glossary link where key terms are defined, and there are words in bold throughout the website text that contain a link to the definition. This website is a good resource for finding basic but important information about ants.

“Arthropods” (2014)


This site contains information about all types of arthropods in the soil. The first paragraph contains generalized information about arthropods and their place in the soil, while the rest of the website is broken into paragraphs containing specific information about each different kind of arthropod and what it does. There is a paragraph about how to collect soil arthropods, as well as a paragraph about where they live, their abundance, and, in general, what they do. This website is extremely well organized, easy to navigate and understand, and contains relevant, correct information. It also has relevant, helpful visual aids.

“Asian Subterranean Termite, Coptotermes gestroi (=havilandi) (Wasmann) (Insecta: Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) " (undated)


 This site gives great detail as to where the Asian subterranean termite can be found throughout the world. It briefly discusses their lifecycle and the damage they can cause. While it does not tell the reader how to manage the termites, it directs one to a link on how to do so.

“Beneficial Soil Invertebrates” (2015)


This website contains information about soil invertebrates. This link tells us about the importance of how invertebrates interact within the soil and their role in the soil. It explains to us the different invertebrates and how they benefit the organic soil matter. This article is useful to us because it tells us the importance of how invertebrates develop the microbes in the soil and how the microbes can be harmful as well. Another reason why this website is useful is because it provides us with great information about how the invertebrates can influence the soil organic matter.

"Centipede" (2013)


This website was made in 2013 to educate people all about centipedes and how they affect gardens. The first paragraph is titled “Identification” and it gives general information about centipedes. This paragraph describes in detail the structure and number of legs these invertebrates have. The rest of the website gives other information, in either single sentences or paragraphs, their size, role in soil, enemies, what, where, and how they eat their pray, and where to find them in the world. This website was very detailed; however, there were some grammar errors and no identified author.

“Centipedes.” (2002-2011)


The aim of this website is to educate children about centipedes. It is only one page of many authored by the program BioKIDS which is partly sponsored by the Interagency Education Research Initiative and is in partnership with the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology and the Detroit Public Schools, and the information found on the site is supported by the National Science Foundation. The website offers a wide variety of unbiased information regarding centipedes, including their habitats, behavior, diet and a list of predators.  The site offers useful information about the classification of centipedes and provides many links for further research. The “Critter Catalog” section of the website is organized by different types of organisms and the centipede falls under the category of Myriapods. This is a very reliable source for basic information about many creatures, including the centipede.

“Centipedes.” (2015)


This is an extension of Ohio State University’s website, and this specific page has information on centipedes. The authors talk about how to identify a centipede, the life cycle and habits, and control measures. There are stone centipedes commonly found in Ohio living under rocks, and they are considered aggressive predators. They have long legs which allow them to move quickly which is an advantage when it comes to hunting prey such as insects and spiders. Centipedes are overall considered beneficial, even house centipedes when they invade a home. This page overall is pretty good, but two things are navigating this site as a whole, and there are no references. There are more topics on other insects, but it’s not in alphabetical order so it’s a takes a while to find another specific insect.

Centipedes and Millipedes” (2001)


This article about centipedes and millipedes shares facts with the reader, such as what they like to eat.  One learns that centipedes have poison claws, millipedes are not the same organism as wireworms, and they both like moist environments.  Although there was not a plethora of information about these two invertebrates at this site, it explained the few things thoroughly.

“Common name: American grasshopper
scientific name: Schistocerca americana (Drury) (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae)” (2007)


This site informs the reader about the American grasshopper. Information on its life cycle, description, and its habitation in the United States is provided. There are links at the top of the page to the different sections, making the site easily navigable.  The information on this site is fairly specific. For example, the description gives measurements and time periods of the grasshoppers as an egg or as nymphs. This site has numerous pictures that depict the grasshopper at various stages of its life. Along with a physical description, the pictures help the reader visualize the physical appearance of the American grasshopper, and can aid in identifying the species. However, the site does significantly discuss the American grasshopper’s effect on crops and the methods of its management as a pest, which might not be as useful in regards to its relationship with the soil.

Common name: soil-inhabiting nematodes Scientific name: Phylum Nematoda” (2009)


This website gives detailed descriptions about soil-inhabiting nematodes. The first paragraph gives general information about soil-inhabiting nematodes, with several other paragraphs that give more detailed information about classification, feeding habits, and community composition. There are helpful visuals about how nematodes feed. The site is easily navigable, well organized, with easy-to-understand information.

“Common Ticks”


This site contains information about common ticks, and safety around them. The website explains what ticks are, and then goes to explain the different types of ticks with pictures appropriately placed for each description. The website also gives advice on tick bite treatment and prevention. This website is easy to understand and navigate.

"Cover Crop impacts of Soil Invertebrates"


This website gives a thorough explanation of what exactly soil invertebrates are and how crop covers affect them. The site starts off by giving the definition of what soil invertebrates are. Following that, there is information on the different types of soil invertebrates and what their roles are. The next part of the website goes into explaining how cover crops help the soil invertebrates and why we should care for soil invertebrates. After that, there is a part on nutrient cycling, water infiltrating, and plant health and pest protection. The website concludes by finishing off with ways to manage cover crops for soil invertebrates and a fact sheet, followed by multiple links.

“Dermestid Beetles (Carpet Beetles)” (2018)


This website provides information about the appearance of dermestid beetles, the most common types of this beetle, how to prevent and control these beetles, and which chemicals can be used to control dermestid beetles. This website has a very informational facts section and provides plenty of pictures in addition to information. For example this website has many detailed pictures showing the appearance of dermestid beetles and their specific features. This site is very easy to navigate, but there are not too many links that lead to further information. Overall, this website is easy to use and is a great place to find detailed information about dermestid beetles.

"Diversity of Soil Surface Invertebrates in Cultivated and Uncultivates Fields in Coastal Savanna Zona of Ghana" (2009)


On this site, the authors explain how the type of invertebrate varies depending on the environment and land that they live in. To test this theory, the University of Cape Coast Nature Reserve (UCCNR) has completed tests in the surrounding soil. They have submerged traps in the soil for 21 days (3 weeks) to see what type of invertebrates they can catch. There were over 350 forms of invertebrates identified from these tests. What was concluded was that there are more invertebrates in where there is more organic matter in the soil. Overall this site gets a 8+ on a scale from 1-10.



This website, a product of the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, a U.N. Organization), gives a detailed overview to earthworms, their needs, and their habits. It is very easy to access and read and will supply a reader with a little more than basic earthworm knowledge. The website mentions several factors impacting earthworms including soil texture, pH, maturation rates, burrowing habits, temperature ranges, and more. While there are limited visuals, the amount of pictures is close to adequate for the length of the article, and the length is sufficient for the amount of information. This is a great overview for anyone looking to learn more about worms.  


“Earthworms.” (n.d.)


This is a great page dedicated to earthworms. The site is actually a product selling website; however they give us a good background on the earthworms. The site includes information about what he earthworms actually do and what their roles in soil are about. The site also introduces us with the places of abundance in earthworm levels including the soil types and the places in the US. The site tells the reader about the interaction of protozoa with other organisms and their roles in the various cycles going on in the soil. The site is very easily navigable accompanied with pictures that are coherent to the site’s information. The author of the site does provide us with the contact information and all the site remains persistent with its information.

"Earthworms" (2015)


            This website describes how earthworm activity benefits soil quality for crop production. Not only does it include what processes earthworms do to enrich the soil in general, but it also states what unique benefits specific species of earthworms can contribute to crop production. There is also a diagram that depicts what the major groups of earthworms are. In addition to the effect of earthworms on crops, the website provides what effects the environment has upon earthworms. It explains that soil and crop management practices influence properties that effects earthworms. This research provides a basic understanding on how earthworms play a role in crop production.

"Earthworms." (2007)


 This web page is strictly about earthworms; however the( rest of the site covers a wide variety of living things. It describes the importance of earthworms, how they travel, how they reproduce, and how they are constructed. The site has good pictures and is easily understood.

“Earthworms’ Role in the Ecosystem” (2012)


            This article discusses the role of earthworms in the soil and in the ecosystem.  Earthworms benefit the soil ecosystem in many ways.  These invertebrates recycle organic material, increase nutrient availability, improve soil structure, and they provide food for predators.  The article also discusses earthworm casts, which are digested materials that earthworms excrete.  This digestion unlocks nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, making them more available to plants to put to use.  This article is not the most sophisticated, but it is easy to read and it has some good information.

"Earthworm (lumbricidae) survey of north dakota fields placed in the U.S. conservation reserve program"


This research paper was written in 2003 in order to evaluate different soil types for earthworm populations. The authors discovered that between certain percentages for each soil texture, earthworm populations thrived best. The report is concise and easily understood without sacrificing any important information. There are several graphs that help to explain the information in further detail. Also, the information is additionally quite specific to understanding the impact of soil texture on earthworms. This paper can aid in any research into earthworms and what affects their population size.

“Earthworms and Their Relatives”  2013


 This website states earthworms appearances, habitats, and ways of living. It also takes about how they reproduce, and their role in the environment. The website includes extra tabs that compose of pictures and more elaborate descriptions of the classification of earthworms. The website was updated in 2013.

“Earthworm Ecology and Sustaining Agriculture” (1990)


This website primarily focuses on the role of earthworms in nutrient cycling and keeping the soil healthy. This website also focuses on the importance of earthworms in an ecosystem and gave an abundance of information about processes related to earthworms and references to other studies as well. Earthworms help keep the soil loose instead of tightly packed, therefore helping plants grow and develop. This site deserves a 7.4+ because of the resources studies supporting the information written and the length of the article was appropriate for the complexity of the information.

“Earthworms in Forests” (2016)


This website provides information about earthworms in forests, specifically in Vermont. This website shows the origins of Vermont earthworms, the effect earthworms have on plant growth, how to identify earthworms, and the soil carbon changes due to earthworms. This website has many informational graphs and relevant pictures to prove and supplement their data. The website also presents their information into easy to navigate sections. Overall, this website is a great place to find detailed information about earthworms in Vermont forests, and also has additional sources where more information can be found.

“Earthworms, Millipedes, and Soil Carbon in the Eastern U.S.” (2016)


The main intention of this article is to educate readers on the effects of various invertebrates on the carbon levels in the soil. The main invertebrates identified are earthworms, but the earthworms’ impact on native millipedes is mentioned towards the end of the article. The article follows the research of U.S. Forest Service scientist, Mac Callahan, and his team. Callahan and his colleagues surveyed the soil composition from sites located in New Hampshire, Michigan, Massachusetts, and Missouri. The goal of the team was to compare soil sites and invasive earthworms’ impact on the soil there. The study found that the population of native millipedes in the area had significantly declined, possibly due to the rising rates of invasive earthworms. The article then goes on to explain why they have made this environmental assumption and earthworms’ role in an environment. This website proves to be reliable and was posted by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). On a scale from 1-10, this site scores a rating of 8+. 

Earthworms: Renewers of Agroecosystems” (1990)


This article describes different categories of earthworms and what their activities are based on what soil layer they dwell in. The categories are also based on the behavioral ecology of the earthworms. The three major categories of earthworms mentioned in this article are epigeic, endogeic, and anecic. Epigeic earthworms live close to the surface of the soil as opposed to endogeic and anecic earthworms, which live deeper in the soil. This article was very well organized and helpful. However, there were no visuals in this article, thus lowering the score.  

“Earwigs” (2012)


This site gives an overview of all things earwigs. It clearly explains the appearance and lifecycle of earwigs so that they can be identified in a garden. It also describes how they can harm one’s garden as well as how to safely manage earwigs. While the website is very through, it does not include any links to outside sources if further information was desired. 

“Factors that Affect the Make-up of Soil Invertebrate Community.” (2010)


“Factors that Affect the Make-up of Soil Invertebrate Community” is an experiment that explores which factors in an environment have an impact on invertebrates found in the soil. Within the introduction, the author explains the role of soil invertebrates as they play a key part in “decomposition, nutrient cycling, and development of soil structure and aggregation” (2010). The author also discusses known elements in an ecosystem that affect the growth of soil invertebrates. At the end of the article, the author shares his data and explains its meaning. The introduction and abstract of the experiment are helpful in giving background of soil invertebrates and their roles in the environment. This article is credible, as the author includes several reliable citations, and is a good source of general information regarding soil invertebrates. However, the resulting data of the experiment does not provide useful information and, as the article was published in 2010, is not very current.

“Factors Influencing Soil Invertebrate Communities in Riparian Grasslands of the Central Platte River Floodplain” (2006)


This link goes to a paper posted through the University of Nebraska Digital commons. The paper discusses how soil invertebrate communities were affected by a change in ground water levels and river flow. it goes on to talk about the importance of invertebrates in a river community and how their population can impact the entire environment. This is a great resource because it contains ample amounts of essential information for studying invertebrates. it's also very helpful because it has many graphs and tables that help to better illustrate the raw data. However this paper was written in 2006 which isn't necessarily as recent as one would hope. Not all 18 pages are spent talking about invertebrates, but there are certain sections like the abstract and introduction that contain lots of core information that would prove very helpful to anyone studying invertebrates.

“Featured Creatures: Pillbugs” (2015)


The purpose of this site is to educate people on the soil invertebrate, the pill bug, scientifically known as the Armadillidium vulgare. The author focuses on the organisms interaction within the ecosystem. Within the ecosystem they have proved to have a positive impact on the environment showing an increase in nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, increased Ph, and higher amounts of carbon that is eliminated from fallen leaves. The site is split up into seven main categories, Introduction, Distribution, description, Life Cycle, Host Plants, Management, Selected and References. The cultivation of appropriate visuals, reputable sources, and author credentials. The only downfall of this site was the lack of contact information.

“Ground-dwelling Ants, Termites, Other Macroarthropods and Earthworms” (2010)


This paper was a collaboration of professors at the University of London. It gives all kinds of good information about the different types of invertebrates and arthropods. It talks about how invertebrates impact a humid forest habitat. It is a good article because it is a collaboration which makes it more likely that the information will be accurate and unbiased. It also has really helpful graphs and charts that help illustrate the data. Even though the contact information is a bit hard to find and there are no links it is still a very helpful sorce.

“Guide to New Zealand Soil Invertebrates – Mollusca.” (2010)


This website is a guide to New Zealand soil invertebrates, specifically mollusks. The article expresses in great detail the description of mollusks, includes information regarding certain species of mollusks, annotates the biology of mollusks, describes where to find them and details their distribution and conservation. A plethora of images are posted alongside the article throughout the various sections in order to accompany and elaborate upon the information. This website is an extremely beneficial resource for studying mollusks despite the fact that the website specifically details New Zealand soil invertebrates.

“Guide to New Zealand Soil Invertebrates.” (2006)


This website is an invaluable resource that contains a plethora of information on a variety of soil invertebrates. The site “provides information on New Zealand soil and litter invertebrates, their diversity, biology, ecosystem role, and conservation status” (Massey University, 2006). There are many pictures, useful links, and further reading for each type of soil invertebrate. At some points, the articles are very lengthy and somewhat complex. Overall, this website is an excellent tool to learn more about soil invertebrates.

“Influence of clay content and acidity of soil on development of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and its population level consequences” (2007)


This research paper was written by seasoned scientists in 2006. It details how a variety of abiotic and biotic factors (including soil texture) impact individual earthworm weight and maturation. Those two effects in turn can determine the population size and reproduction rate. Therefore, they are essential to examining how higher clay content soil can affect the earthworm population. Despite the research was done in the Netherlands, the research could be applicable to deciduous climates due to the variety of soil types that the researchers used. The paper is written at a high reading level; however, the information is relevant and well-organized and the visuals are easy to understand.


“Insect-Parasitic Nematodes for the Management of Soil-Dwelling Insects” (2015)


This site discusses the impact that insect parasitic Nematodes has on the other organisms that live within the soil. The site is broken up into multiple subcategories. The site is very professional including many visuals, very exquisite information, but can come off as intimidating with the complex information. The author is very reputable, a professor at Penn State University.

"Insects and Their Allies." (2007)


This site shows the seven levels of classification, including Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. This site also displays the five kingdoms of taxonomy which include Anamalia, Plantae, Fungi, Procaryota, and Protoctista. There is also a chart available to determine how to identify the difference between insects and invertebrates. The final subject described in this site is the life cycles of invertebrates. This includes the changes that invertebrates go through during their lifetime, and how there appearances change throughout time. 

"Interactions Between Soil Invertebrates and Entomopathogenic Nematodes in No-till and Conventional-till Corn in North Carolina."


The site, sponsored by North Carolina State University, discusses the relationship between entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) and invertebrates who are harmful to crops. The paper research using the EPN's as a pesticide which would be more environmentally and economically suitable. In order to prove that the EPN's could serve as a viable option for a pesticide the scientists used two different test. One test  uses EPNs from an infected insect and the other comes from an aqueous solution. In order to determine the success of the experiment the scientists measured the amount of abundance of the fauna, the diversity, and composition of the community made from taxomic identifications of the invertebrates. A verity of results, including positive and negative responses, were found based off of different factors.

“Introduction to the Arthropoda” (2008)


“Introduction to the Arthropoda” provides a brief and basic introduction to Arthropods. This information includes information about Arthropods such as their body plan, life history and fossil records, ecology, and classifications, different types of arthropods, and systematics of arthropods. This site is organized, brief, easy to navigate, proofread, and accurate. This site includes several pictures and diagrams. Reference sources are listed.

"Invertebrates" (undated).


This website gives great information about invertebrates. The website is from an aquarium in Tennessee, so if someone wanted to learn more about invertebrates they could travel to this aquarium.

“Invertebrate Biodiversity” (8/18/2016)




This site provides background information about invertebrates as well as the effect of urbanization on the invertebrate diversity. The site emphasizes the importance of invertebrate biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. It mentions case studies that support their assertion that the invertebrate biodiversity of an ecosystem correlates to its health. This website is very organized and has good information, but it lacks any visuals.

“Invertebrates Control of Soil Organic Matter Stability” (2000)


This website evaluates the effect of soil invertebrates upon the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM). The author argues that “SOM stabilization by invertebrates probably has evolved as an adaptive strategy to increase the suitability of the soil habitat” (“Invertebrate control of soil organic matter stability,” 99). Graphs and tables support the author’s hypothesis and explain his analysis thoroughly; however, collaboration with other scientists would provide further verification of the data and enhance the credibility of the study. Overall, this site proved understandable and informative. The paper includes the author’s contact information if a question should arise.

Invertebrates as determinants and indicators of soil quality 


The importance of invertebrates is touched on in this site. They help determine the sustainability of soil and allow the plants and trees in the surrounding areas to grow and live to have healthy lives. They also help determine the nature of the soil and in the long run see the human based changes in the soil. The main types/groups that live in the soil are earthworms, termites, nematodes and springtails. These determine the soil quality. Overall this site gets a 7- on a scale of 1-10.

"Invertebrate Diversity in Taylor Valley Soils and Sediments" (undated).


This article by Amy A. Treonis, Diana H. Wall, and Ross A. Virginia discusses invertebrate diversity in the Taylor Valley. The goal of their experiment was to understand how different invertebrates involved in ecosystem processes are organized in a stream channel and the soil surrounding it. They studied how different factors such as moisture and salinity affect invertebrate diversity. There are helpful visuals, like graphs and charts, throughout the page. The information in this article is definitely accurate. The site is from the University of Richmond Biology Faculty Publications. The three authors are from the University of Richmond, Colorado State University Natural Resource Ecology Lab, and Dartmouth College Environmental Studies Program.

“Invertebrates of the Compost Pile” (1996)


The website provides a multitude of information on the invertebrates that could be found in your compost pile. The place of said invertebrates in the food chain is explained sufficiently; it is listed simply at the beginning of the website then is explained in more detail as you go deeper into the site.  There are some directions on how to begin your compost pile but more on what you would find in it. The website was written in 1996 which is not that recent but the information is still valid.

“Isopoda” (1997)


This site provides information on isopods, more commonly known as pillbugs or woodlice. Although a bit outdated, the information provided is still applicable. This page includes information about physical characteristics, habitats, feeding, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeographical history of isopods. The information is detailed, and there are useful diagrams to help the reader better understand some of the facts written. There is a navigation bar on the right side of the page so that it is possible to go to a section of the page without having to scroll down all the way there. Overall, this site provides useful information that might not normally be on other sites like the biogeographical history, and can be especially useful if knowledge of the parts of an isopod is needed.

“Isopoda/Pillbugs” (2011)


This site provides extensive information on isopoda or the pillbug. There several very good pictures of these invertebrates. It is shown and written how you might identify them and where you might find them. This website was very recently updated and provides links to information on other types of invertebrates.

“Kentucky Centipedes” (2011)


The website is from the University of Kentucky.  It is their general guide to centipedes.  The subjects they include are the taxonomy, definition, life cycle, ecology, pest status, common centipedes, general facts, myths, and pictures.  The facts a brief and to the point, which makes them simple to understand.  Their pictures also help identify the different kinds of centipedes.

“Life under Your Feet: Measuring Soil Invertebrate Diversity” (2005)


This website briefly discusses the relationship between the biota, resource attributes and physico-chemical environment. It also details the type of organisms that are involved in the process of decomposition. It goes further to explain the behaviors of certain soil invertebrates and the roles they play in the soil. The website provides a helpful visual mapping out the “The Soil Food Web”. Furthermore the website outlines steps in which students can formulate an experiment to measure soil invertebrate density, how to collect their data and format their report. This website is helpful in gaining a broad understanding about the roles of soil invertebrates in the eco-system and outlining an experiment for students studying invertebrates.

"Light, Earthworms, and Soil Resources as Predictors of 10 Soil Invertebrate Groups Across Monocultures of 14 Tree Species" (undated).


This source is an article on an experiment on factors determining invertebrate diversity in soil. The scientists found that light in the forest understory, abundance of earthworms, amount of calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen, soil acidity, and the amount and diversity of fungi, plant litter, and roots were the main factors contributing to invertebrate diversity. They also found that when resources are more abundant, there is more diversity in the soil invertebrates. The paper is split into seven sections: abstract, introduction, methods and materials, results, discussion, references, and acknowledgements. There were several graphs detailing the results collected in the experiment, as well as an extensive bibliography.

"The Living Soil: Arthropods"


This site provides a great amount of information on soil arthropods and everything you need to know about them. The website starts off by giving the definition of what arthropods are, and where the name “arthropod” is originated from. It then goes on to explain the different types of arthropods and how they are grouped. After that, the website goes into more detail on the different groups of arthropods and the bugs that are apart of each. The different groups include the following: Shredders, Predators, Herbivores, and Fungal Feeders. Following that, the website then gives you a few tips for how to know if/what things are in your soil. Then, it explains what arthropods do, where they live, and the abundance of arthropods. Once all of that ends, the website finished off by saying what the most abundant type of arthropod is and background on that. Overall, this site gives a lengthy amount of information on arthropods and everything that you need to know about them. My end rating for this website was a 8+. 


"The Living Soil: Eathworms"


The site, from Natural Resources Conservation Service, serves as a guide into the curious lives of earthworms. By informing the reader about the variety of earthworms, one understands the extreme diversity of the considered to be common creature. The site also offers a look into the many different benefits in having earthworms in the soil such as mixing the soil, increasing infiltration, improving water-holding capacity, providing space for roots, and bury and shred left over plant matter. The site also gives instructions on who to find earthworms and where they are most commonly found. The article give a lovely introduction into a seemingly simple invertebrate.

"USDA- The Living Soil: Earthworms" (undated).


This article by the U.S. Department of Agriculture discusses the invertebrate earthworms. It provides a general overview about earthworms and what they do, then has several paragraphs that go into depth about different topics relating to earthworms. These more specific topics within the article include: “What do earthworms do?”, “Where are earthworms?”, “Looking for earthworms?”, “Abundance and distribution of earthworms”, “ Interactions of earthworms with other members of the food web”, and “Earthworms and water quality”. This seems like a professional site, but still includes a few relevant visuals. The writing on this page is organized, informative, and easy to read. The information is most likely to be reliable because the author, Clive A. Edwards, is a professor of soil ecology at Ohio State University.

“The Living Soil: Nematodes”


This website gives an in-depth description of nematodes as well as their appearance, purposes within an ecosystem, and function within the soil. The purpose of this article is to promote the beneficial and crucial roles within the soil that nematodes play. The website goes on to identify different species of nematodes while providing visuals. In the article, the diet and necessary water quality required for nematodes are explained. This website goes well into depth about the nature of nematodes which is explained in a way that can be comprehended by many. Though nematodes are often portrayed in a negative light, this website sheds light upon the helpful and necessary roles of the worms. On a scale from 1-10, this website scores a rating of 7+.

The Living Soil: Protazoa"


This site is a highly reliable source that provides a useful amount of information on soil protozoa and everything you need to know about them. the website begins by giving the defintion of what protozoa are, and how they are classified. It then goes into how protozoa play an important role on the soil. After that, there is information on two main types of protozoa, which are flagellates and ciliates. Following that, there is information on what protozoa do and where they are located. The website concludes by providing information on nematodes, protozoa, and a type of fungi-eating protozoa. In the end, this is a highly recommendable site that is a great place to learn about protozoa. i gave this website a rating of 7.3+.

“The role of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on influencing bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. Biol Fertil Soil” (2004)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225877374_The_role_of_earthworms_Eisenia_fetida_on_influencing_bioavailability_of_heavy_metals_in_soils_Biol_Fertil_Soil (7.9 plus)

This article is a research paper testing the effects of earthworms on soil pH, and the availability of heavy metals in soils. The researchers found that earthworms increased the pH of all of the soils examined as well as some water-soluble heavy metals. This is a site which allows the researcher to search for papers and information on multiple topics. This paper was impressive because of the amount of citations, references, links, and contributors. This paper had a total of four authors. This paper was well-written and easy to understand. This site deserves a 7.9+ due to the amount of contributors and the validity of the results from the experiment completed.

“Millipedes.” (2015)


This page is from National Wildlife Federation’s wildlife library. In this library, this organization is trying to educate people on a variety of plant and animal life, and this page talks about millipedes. It gives information such as an overall description, size, diet, predation, typical lifespan, its usual habitat, and reproduction. One interesting thing about millipedes is that some are bioluminescent these ones are found in California. On this site, it is easy to get around and learn more about certain animals and plants, but just like any other organization there are many ads that ask of taking action or buying things which involves money.

"Millipedes and Centipedes." (2012)


This website provides general information about both centipedes and millipedes.  It discusses the main physical features of both millipedes and centipedes.  In addition, it explains their significance to the health of the soil.  The website is easy to navigate, providing helpful links to subjects related to the content of the article.  In addition, it provides useful photographs to compliment the article.  Although this was briefly addressed, the site did not thoroughly discuss the difference between centipedes and millipedes which would have been useful.  In addition, the website only provided one reference for the article which is not ideal.  However, overall the website contained useful information in an organized and understandable fashion.  

“Millipedes and Centipedes.” (2015)


 This page about millipedes and centipedes is found on an extension of University of Georgia’s website.  The author, Dr. Beverly Sparks, compares the description, life cycle, habitat, and control of millipedes and centipedes. Millipedes and centipedes do not fall under the category of insects in fact they share a closer connection to lobsters, crayfish, and shrimp, but they lived on land. They are often found moist and humid areas. Millipedes and centipedes migrate around the spring and fall and sometimes can be found in houses by getting through cracks in the wall. Millipedes cannot live properly in a house, but house centipedes can. They feed on cockroaches and decaying leaves. This website is very information on the differences between millipedes and centipedes, but there are no references to refer to and learn more information from.

“Mold, Where It Can Grow” (2014)


This site is about the places and environments in which mold can grow. It is comprised of two general paragraphs about the environments where mold thrives, with several other paragraphs going into more detail about specific aspects of the environment which can affect where mold grows. This includes temperature, humidity levels, and food availability. This is a useful site for generalized information about environments where mold is able to grow. Although there is a lack of visual aid in the article, the information is relevant, organized, and easy to understand.

“Nematodes” (2010)


This website provides information about nematodes, and focuses on the effects they can have on plants. It provides specific details about the life cycle of nematodes, the damage nematodes cause, sanitation and management of nematodes, and how to plan your farming to prevent nematodes. This website has many tables showing the relationships between different plants and nematodes, and the website also includes many pictures showing the effect of nematodes on plants. This website is easy to navigate and has many good visual aids. There are also places listed to find new information. Overall this website is easy to use and has very detailed information.

"The Nitrogen and Phosphorous Cycle in Soils" (undated)


This website described the nitrogen and phosphorous cycle. It discusses dentrification, leaching and nitrogen fixation. This document is easy to understand, has appropriate visuals and is from a reputable source. Although it is easy to understand, the document does not have a bibliography for further research. It also does not have more detailed information about nitrogen or phosphorous available. After reading the website, it should be used for basic research on the nitrogen and phosphorous cycle.

“Plant and Insect Parasitic Nematodes” (undated)


This site has specific information on parasitic nematodes.  It contains information on nematodes themselves and on the procedures used to identify and study nematodes.  Most of the site is dedicated to research on the nematodes in the northern Great Plains. This site has a ton of good pictures.  In addition, since the University of Nebraska runs it it is probably a very reliable and accurate site, with good author credentials.  It also has some good links. On the other hand, it is not the easiest site to navigate, especially if you do not know what you are looking for.  I would recommend this site only for people who are looking for very specific information on nematodes.

“Plant-Mediated Effects of Soil Invertebrates and Summer Drought on Above-ground Multi-Trophic Interactions” (2011)


This journal article discusses a study which tested for how earthworms and a summer drought affected the populations of aphids and its parasite the Aphidius ervi. The article describes how tests indicated that drought decreased a plant community’s biomass, but on the contrary when faced with summer drought the population of earthworms increased. This article is very in depth with their results and background information pertaining to their research. The article is helpful in learning more about terrestrial invertebrates, specifically worms, and how they can be affected by drought.

"Plos One" (2008)


Soil invertebrates have been thoroughly investigated during the last two decades.  This site gives several information on the background and methods on soil invertebrates.  Soil communities are as complex as the inhabitants are numerous.  Increased land use results in rapid decline of soil organic matter due to reduced input rates and decreased physical protection to decomposition by cropping and tillage.

“The Positive Contribution of Invertebrates to Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security” (2012).


            This article discusses a study regarding soil invertebrates, biological control agents (BCAs), and pollinators.  These organisms benefit agricultural systems greatly, and can be used in many different ways.  Reducing the amount of soil invertebrates will reduce its beneficial services.  This experiment discusses how soil invertebrates regulate microbial activity in soils.  It has very good information and is a great source, and has sophisticated information.

“The Short-Term Impact of Forest Fire on Soil Invertebrates in the Miombo”. (2005)




This website contains information on the effect of forest fires on soil invertebrates. It shows information about the contributions that soil invertebrates have in an environment. It also contains research about the effect of forest fires on invertebrate biodiversity. It mentions how the invertebrates react to forest fires and which ones act a certain way. This website is very organized and contains appropriate charts and graphs.

Snails, Clams, Squids and Octopodes” (undated)


This article contains information about a group of invertebrates named Mollusca. It explains the characteristics of the Mollusca’s, interesting facts about each Mollusks, as well as naming and explaining the three main groups of the Mollusks. This website is useful because it is easy to navigate as well as gives good information about the different types of mollusks there are in the world.

“Snails/Slugs” (2005)


This site has specific information regarding the life of slugs and snails in an ecosystem. The goal of this site is to inform readers of the history and scientific behavior of slugs and snails.  Although specific, the information on this site is presented in a friendly and easily understood manner. This makes it very easy for the reader to learn about slugs and snails. The site is split up through hyperlinks in the passage, making it easier to navigate the site. Despite the exquisite information, the site lacks visuals and organization.

“Snails and Slugs” (2014)


This website goes in depth about the physical features of snails and slugs and the type of food they eat. It also goes into detail about the importance of slime to snails and mucus to slugs. There is also information on the type of defensive reaction a slug performs when an ant is present. The website includes many pictures and the website itself is very easy to understand.

“Soil Invertebrates and Ecosystem Services” (2006)


On this site, the important and significance of invertebrates are mentioned. They are often over looked and ignored, but the role that they have in the ecosystem is very important. They help develop the soil and the biological processes that are ongoing. It has been noticed in many studies that soil invertebrates are one of the main indicators of soil quality. If these invertebrates are not properly managed, there is a chance the ecosystem can decrease in health. Overall this site gets a 7.67+ on a scale of 1-10.


"Soil and Ecosystem Ecology." (2006)


This site offers information about Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Ecology. Soil Ecology is mainly about soil invertebrates and what they do for the environment. The soil invertebrates are susceptible to their own environment, but are excellent for the impacts of land organization practices. Ecosystem Ecology is mainly about the elements of a soil invertebrate ecosystem. These factors include what plant species surround the organisms’ environment and what living species are involved in that area.  


“Soil Invertebrate Identification Chart”


This is page gives a chart of the most common soil invertebrates, and for each invertebrate it gives the common name, the class, a physical description, it’s diet, and it’s habitat. It also has a picture of each invertebrate. This website is extremely useful for learning quick and basic information about soil invertebrates. It does not go into any depth because it is just an identification chart, but it still contains a lot of good information. In order to find contact numbers, dates, or authors, you have to go to a different website which is somewhat confusing.

"Soil Invertebrate and Microbial Communities, and the Decomposition an Indicators of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination" (2002)


This article contains the results of a study that tests chemical effects on the composition of soil invertebrates and their decomposition process. It explains how invertebrates provide a measure of chemical effects and bio-toxicity upon soil. This allows for quantitative data. Included are organized diagrams of the data and explanations on what the data patterns mean. These explanations reveal how the chemicals within the soil effect the ability of the invertebrates to preform decomposition. The study particularly focuses on the chemical creosote and how it can fluctuate decomposition rates. This article is helpful to one who wants to know what species of invertebrates can benefit microbial processes within the soil in combination of specific chemicals.

“Soil Invertebrates as Indicators of Soil Quality. (1996) 


This site provides information on what soil quality is and the impact Invertebrates have on it. In the first part of the source readers will find information on exactly what soil quality is. The beginning will also explain to readers what soil itself is and the components that are associated with soil. As readers continue they will find information on invertebrates. The source shares information on what invertebrates affect in the soil. Overall, this is an excellent source for people who want to get some background information on soil, soil quality, and invertebrates. I would rate this site a 8+ on a scale from 1-10. 

“Soil invertebrates in Australian rain gardens and their potential roles in storage and processing of nitrogen” (2016) 


On this site readers learn about a survey that took place in Melbourne, Australia that showed a soil invertebrate community. The (soil invertebrate)  community differed from other sites, but continued to remain constant throughout sampling dates. This site provides specific information drawn from the survey and provides information on the community of soil invertebrates. The soil invertebrates are described in their scientific names as well as in more common names that people might recognize easier. This is a positive aspect to the website. Overall, the site is gets an 8+ based on a 1-10 scale. 

“Soil Invertebrates in the American Samoa.” (2000)


This paper is about soil invertebrates in the American Samoa, specifically about cataloging some of the uncatalogued types of invertebrates in the Samoa. It details a process used to gather the invertebrates (Berlese-Tullgren funnel extractions). It outlines the some of the roles that soil invertebrates play in ecosystems. Depending on the type of invertebrate, this can include aerating the soil by churning it up while they are tunneling. It explains things in a way that is clear and concise and references many other sources. It dips into the specifics without making things too confusing. The bad thing about this site is that it is a little old, being from 2000. There are also not many visuals, leading this site to be kind of dense.

“Soil Mites and Other Animals” (undated)


This site starts with discussing general organisms in soil everywhere. The site then presents organisms found on the New Zealand terrain. It contains many helpful and clear images that show these organisms. There is only an overview of each organism but the links help to direct to more specific web pages.

"Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Soil Invertebrates in a Perennial Grass Agricultural Landscape" (2007)


This site is an interpretive summary about soil invertebrates in an agricultural landscape. This site explains that soil invertebrates were sampled in different layers of soil to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of these invertebrates. These samples will recognize the key taxa, abiotic factors, and spatial and temporal templates.   

“Springtails” (January, 1994)


This website has general information on important issues of entomology. The topics of this website include field crop insects, fruit insects, vegetable insects, structural, industrial and medical insects, livestock insects, landscape insects, and miscellaneous insects. The site defines insects living in different surroundings. Each topic contains a brief list of links to insects that hold relevancy to their allotted topics.

“The Density and Diversity of Soil Invertebrates in Conventional and Pesticide Free Corn” (2002)


This paper is about the effect of pesticide on soil invertebrates in cornfields. It states that invertebrate communities are more diverse and larger in quantity. It gives a general understanding of the effect that pesticides can have on soil invertebrate communities. This site is from 2002, which means that it is a little bit old. That being said, if it is used to gather information on the factors that affect the density of soil invertebrates, it can be very helpful. This site is a little bit harder to navigate because it is in pdf form and it is pretty long. It is very easy to read because it is separated into many sections showing the different parts of the experiment. It has a lot of references throughout, which could give you things to look into further.

“The First Arthropods” (2011)


This site is about the evolution of arthropods leading to the soil invertebrates that we study today. It also provides a lot of information about Myriapods, including a description of their shape and the way that they grow. There are links to more pictures further explaining the text. This makes this website very easy to use. It has a lot of helpful pictures that relate to the text. The way that it is explained is clear and concise. There is a little bit of information that is not directly about soil invertebrates, but instead about the ancestors and relatives of modern day soil invertebrates. There are a lot of definitions included into the website, so it is easy to understand. The contact information is hard to find; you have to go to the homepage in order to find the contact page.

“Taxonomic Organization of Terrestrial Invertebrates” (2008)


This PDF file is from Colby College.  It is their guide for soil invertebrates from 2008.  It has a lot of corresponding pictures and descriptions about commonly found soil invertebrates.  The website is mainly one large chart with names, diagrams, and brief descriptions of the bugs.

“Worm Facts.” (undated)


This website provides an abundance of beneficial information about earthworms. It is authored by the Urban Programs Resource Network, which is an extension of the University of Illinois. The site is designed for children, but it can be a helpful resource for people of all ages who are interested in learning more about earthworms. This website can be navigated very easily and there are links about the anatomy, diet and living habits of the earthworm. There is also a page of interactive games designed to help further educate children and get them interested in learning more about earthworms. Most information on the site is in a bullet-point format, making the website user-friendly and very easy to understand.

“Using Soil Fauna to Improve Soil Health” (1997)


            This article by Bonnie Witt discusses how soil invertebrates and other organisms can significantly improve soil structure by decreasing bulk density, increasing soil pore space, increased aeration and drainage, increased water holding capacity, and litter decomposition.  Soil invertebrates are abundant in healthy soil, and they can usually thrive with little maintenance.  The article mainly focuses on protozoa, nematodes, termites, and earthworms, and their roles in soil health and vitality.  First, Witt discusses the importance of soil fauna communities, and their function to soil health, including protozoa, nematodes, and earthworms.  She also discusses promoting soil biota colonization, and how to go about this.  This paper is sophisticated and of a high-level, and it was fairly easy to read. 

“Wood Decomposition as Influenced by Invertebrates”


This document reviews how invertebrates in the soil affect the decomposition of wood in nature. The document breaks down the process of decomposition and how the environmental impacts its speed. The website also includes how the absence of certain invertebrate could prove to be particularly consequential within the environment. This website provides pages of references from several sources, proving this document to be reliable, as well as having been posted by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). On a scale from 1-10, this site scores a rating of 9+.