“10 Roles of Fungi and Other Microbes”


      This website discusses roles of microbes in nature.  It tells about the main process that microbes do for the health of our environment. An example would be of the processes are the recycling of nutrients in which the organic things on earth are decomposed. The article on this website is a good length and gives information for people who want to know the roles of microbes in our environment. This a reliable source for learning more about microbes.    

"Adding Soil Microbes" (2003)


    This website tells how microbes are needed in the soil and how soil in America does not seem to have enough. This website gives suggestions to fix this problem and gives you different products you can use to help the microbes in the soil. This website is informative, but I feel that it is trying to sell me something more then anything. It is still easy to understand and you need to understand how something works and its importance in the world to understand its true meaning.

“Adding Soil Microbes” (2010)


            The information in this website includes how soil bacteria and fungi are beneficial, soil microbe products and what food soil microbes need. The website is semi- recent since it was last updated in 2010 but it has detailed pictures and diagrams and is easy to navigate. One way this website could improve is by having more accessible links and sources.

Adesalu, T.A. and Olugbemi, O.M. “Soil Algae: A Case Study of Two Vegetable Farmlands in Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest Nigeria.” (2015)


This article has a detailed report on a case study on soil algae in two vegetable farmlands in Lagos and Ogun States in southwest Nigeria. In this case study, top soil samples were collected for seven months and studied for abiotic parameters and algae composition. The article is easily navigable since the information is separated with specific sections and headers along with appropriate pictures, graphs, and data tables that correlate with the topic of the article. The authors provide many resources that will provide additional information on their topic, and they also left information that can be used to contact them. Overall, this site gets a 8.2/+ on a scale of 1-10.

Affects of Soil Microorganisms On Plant Health and Nutrition” (2016)


This site explains what microorganisms are, what they do in soil and what they eat. It also explains how they contribute and help create healthy soil. It then explains what organic matter is and soil microbe activity. The site goes into great detail and the information is easy to explain. It also has a conclusion. Even though the site goes into great detail, there are no pictures.

"Bacteria" (2009)


         This is a government website which provides a brief summary of bacteria in the soil and ecosystem. Although the site was last updated in 2005, it is dedicated to providing general scientific information that would not have changed within 6 years. The authors, knowing that science advances rapidly, left a warning to the reader to take into account the date the information was published. The site provides some related material, but could be improved with more sources.

“Bacteria as Emerging Indicators of Soil Condition.” (October 28, 2016)


This website elaborates on the importance of bacteria and their communities in soil ecosystems. It includes information on the role of bacteria in the environmental perturbations that take place. This page also walks the reader through an experiment that was conducted in order to find out more about the effect of bacteria on soil conditions. This website is very extensive in information using 48 different references. It was uploaded in 2016 by a collaborating group of people. For these reasons this site earned a score of 8.1+.

“Bacteria in the Soil and Ground Water.” (2010)


This website describes the basic functions of bacteria in the soil and groundwater. It explains information such as what type of organism bacteria is and areas which they live in. This site is a great source to use as an introduction to bacteria. This specific page is part of a series known as the Chemistry of the Environment. It was created in 2010 by a professor at the University of Illinois. The information on the page is stated clearly and is easy to understand with corresponding visuals. For these reasons this site earned a score of 8.4+.

“Chapter 3: Bacteria”(2018)


The goal of this site is to educate viewers on the overall purpose of bacteria and to become aware of their surroundings. This specific page elaborates upon the description of soil bacteria, how the microbes function, general climate locations, while extending knowledge towards important types of bacteria as well as the microbial importance for plant growth. This specific section of the site is split into multiple chapters of soil education, extending beyond the lesson of soil microbes. This website provides user friendly information, making the knowledge easy to understand for a variety of ages. The specific information is specific and not overly elaborate, captivating the reader’s attention without eventually boring the recipient.

“Chapter 4: Soil Fungi” (2018)


This website elaborates upon the description of soil fungi, general climate locations in and the existence of such microbes in modern cultivations. The goal of the information provided is to educate people on the importance of the relationship between soil fungi and agriculture. This specific section of the site is split into multiple chapters of soil education, extending beyond the lesson of soil microbes. This website provides user friendly information, making the knowledge easy to understand for a variety of ages. The specific information is specific and not overly elaborate, captivating the reader’s attention without eventually boring the recipient.

“Chapter 5: SOIL PROTOZOA” (2018)


This site explores a specific microbe found in the soil, protozoa. General information is given about different types of protozoa found and their lives. There isn’t extremely specific information, thus making this website a good length for a summary about protozoa. It is split up into general groups with headers that group the information clearly. Additionally, necessary images are present thus making it easier for the reader to make connections.

“Chapter 6: NEMATODES” (2018)



This nematode based article found on this site gives a reliable summary about this microbe such as what they do, where they are, and their correlation with soil quality. Important information and general topics are bolded to make this site easier to navigate. Images are also able to allow the reader to physically see the different types of nematodes. In addition, this short website gives important information easily without going too deep into specifics. But, more information about certain ideas would be helpful to make this website even stronger. Also, credentials of the direct author can be found easily.

Clarholm, Marianne, Borkowski, Michael, Griffiths, Bryan. “Protozoa and other Protista in Soil.”


This website is the perfect guide to everything about soil protozoa, is extremely informative, and the perfect introduction to protozoa. It shows the distribution of soil protozoa and the ecological roles for the protozoa. There are many images that further develop the ideas written about in the article. Although there is a lot of information, it is all extremely well organized, and the article is easy to navigate. There are also numerous references that could all give more information.  

“Definition of Soil Microbe Groups” (2015)


This website provides information on eight soil microbes; Bacteria, Fungi, Actinomycetes, Algae, Protozoa, Nematodes, Arthropods, Earthworms. It defines all of the listed soil microbes and gives a brief summary of their function. The website is very resourceful for information on soil microbes.

Delgado-Baquerizo, Oliverio, Brewer, Benavent-Gonzalez, Eldridge, Bardgett, Maestre, Singh, and Fierer. “A global atlas of the dominant bacteria found in soil” (1/19/2018)


This article is a study about the diversity of bacteria in the soil. They found that some types of soil bacteria are much more common than others. A few types of soil were extremely abundant all around the world, while most were fairly scarce. The study also found that certain types of soil are more desirable. The website did a good job with references and adding links to other sources throughout the article. They also have multiple diagrams that are helpful for understanding the concepts. I rated this website as an 8+.

Deobhanj, “How Fertilizer Use Alters Soil Bactria Communities”. (7/11/2018)


This article discusses the results of a study that researched the changes that happen in soil bacteria and how that effects rice population due to inorganic and organic fertilizers over time. They found that nitrogen-fixing bacteria in fertilizers may have helped to increase the rice yield. They also found that the mineralization of carbon and nitrogen were highest in the soil that was treated with farmyard manure and NPK. The website was very clean and simple. The design isn’t distracting and the study is easy to understand. 7.5+

"Dr. Earth" (undated).


            This site had an easy-to-use navigation system and a poor number of visuals.  It talks about the importance and variety of organisms and species. It emphasizes that soil is considered alive and of the complex organic structure of soil. The information was somewhat specific, although helpful for the topic. It provides links to gardening, soil practices, and organic future of soil.

"Extensions" (2014).


This site has the results of an experiment, that tested what microbes were present in soil. Microbial diversity can benefit agriculture and plant diversity. This site had great correlation and references. This site provided links to pages and videos that also talk about microbes, as well as other important information. The information was specific and helpful.

“Environmental effects on microbes” (2005)


           This is the Microbial Management systems-Building microbial communities’ website. This site explains how soil disturbance can effect soil microbes. The soil microbes is also be effected by soil organic matter and soil moisture. It explains how to help maintain a good environment for the soil microbial communities. This site has easy navigation and complex information.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. “APG- Algae”. (2019) http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/thematic-sitemap/theme/spi/soil-biodiversity/soil-organisms/by-type/algae/en/

This website writes about the structure and the several species of algae. It talks about where algae locate themselves in the soil and the processes that they assist in carrying out. The website contains an appropriate image with a caption. The information included is not confusing and easy to navigate, but the material is relatively short. Overall this site earns an 8.1 + on a scale of 1-10.

Frac M., Hannula S., Belka M., and Jedryczka M. “Fungal Biodiversity and Their Role in Soil Health” (2018) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932366/

This site describes fungi and its main roles in the soil. It explains the different ways that fungi are beneficial to soil health. The authors write about the different types of soil fungi, and how they each contribute to helping maintain soil health. This website also lists several book sources that were used. While the website was easy to navigate, some topics explained were somewhat difficult to understand. Overall, this site scores an 8.7 + on a scale of 1-10.

"Fungi: Life History and Ecology”


This article covers fungus and the characteristics of the family. It is short, but simple and easy to understand; an excellent introduction for those learning about fungi. The article only has a single visual of a fungus colony observed with a microscope. In addition, the contact information for a source of further research has expired. However, the article is part of a larger collection of fungi-related articles on the parent website, which could prove useful to the reader.

“Gardening with Microbes”


                This website explains the importance of microbes. It also briefly explains how they are important in humans as well. There is also information about different types of microbes such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa which live in soil. The microbes are part of many different elements of nature including the nitrogen cycle and recycling dead organisms. There is also a type of microbe that causes the death of plants and animals annually. The information on the site is not extensively long and there is a link to contact the author if needed. The article has a recent date which means that the information is fairly recent.

Geisen, Stefan. Guo, Sai. Jousset, Alexandre. Karlsson, Ida. Kowalchuk, George. Li, Rong. Shen, Qirong. Wu, Huasong. Xiong, Wu. Zhao, Qingyun. “Soil Protist Communities Form a Dynamic Hub in the Soil Microbe.”


This is a study recorded in the ISME Journal for Microbial Biology, and even though the website is a .com, it is still a reliable source. The abstract discusses how protozoa are the often overlooked microorganisms in the soil, and introduces the study, which observes the effects of fertilizers on protozoan interactions. This source is somewhat confusing, as it is an academic study, but provides an in-depth look into how protozoa interact with chemicals in the soil. There are appropriate images and an adequate number of resources. This site scores an 8 with a + for contact information on a scale from 1-10.

“Get the Dirt on Soil Microbes” (2017)


This website is unique, as it informs the reader of soil microbes abilities in fact form. This makes it easier for the reader to process the information better. In addition, the facts are more interesting than the average soil microbe article. These interesting facts pertain to space, electricity, rice crops, and climate change. The website is a trusted source, since it is linked to the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at University of California, Davis. It includes interesting pictures and captions. There are also valuable links and detailed contact information.

“Healthy Soil Microbes, Healthy People” (2013)


            This website provides information about how the health of humans is linked to the health of soil microbes. There are some pictures which are not very informative but the information in the article is pretty recent since it was written in 2013. An improvement for this website would be for it to include more pictures and diagrams that are more informative and also add more meaning to the article.

"The Hidden World Under Our Feet." (2013)


      This New York Times article focuses on the biodiversity of soil microbes. The reporter, Jim Robbins, approaches the topic in a relatable way to elucidate an important subject matter to the general interest reader. He discusses soil microbial biodiversity, particularly the biodiversity of soil microbes found in the ocean floor and the scientist research group “Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative”. Robbins writes, “Soil is the foundation on which the house of terrestrial biodiversity is built” (“The Hidden World Under Our Feet”). This article forewarns people about the consequences of human agricultural and urbanization activity. These said actions disturb and disrupt soil microbes under the soil surface which will increase the levels of harmful microbes into the air and drive soil microbe populations to extinction. In addition, Robbins stresses the profound affects global warming will have on the biodiversity of microbes and therefore plant growth. The article also notes the beneficial qualities of soil microbes, especially how they act as carbon dioxide repositories, retain pathogens, and produce antibiotics. Although the article comes from a newspaper which may result in bias, the writer has background in compositions relating to science and references qualified scientists. With only one appropriate graphic, the site is easy to navigate and user-friendly.

Hoorman J. “Role of Soil Fungus” (2019)  https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/anr-37

This website specifically focuses on fungi and how they contribute to microbial ecology. It is written by an assistant professor at Ohio State University and the information included is appropriately detailed. There are relevant images as well as captions included that could be helpful to readers. At the end of the site, numerous reliable references are listed. This website was also made in 2019, which shows that it is up-to-date. Overall this site gets a 9.2+ on a scale of 1-10.

 Hoorman, James. “The Role of Soil Protozoa and Nematodes.” (2011)


This is a fact sheet about the roles of protozoa and nematodes in the soil. It opens with an introduction to the role of protozoa in the soil, as well as listing the different types of protozoa that are commonly found in the soil. It also discusses their role and how they interact with other microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, and what types of soils they typically inhabit. This is a PDF, so one of the only negative aspects is that there are very few links, but otherwise, it was straightforward, informative, and reliable. It also talks about nematodes, so another negative aspect would be that it doesn’t go into as much detail about protozoa as possible, but it is definitely a helpful introduction. This site scores a 7.67 with a + for contact information on a scale from 1-10.

“How Ancient Plants and Soil Fungi Turned Earth Green”


This article talks about how fungi are beneficial to the soil and has helped plant life for a very long time. The article, while brief, provided plenty of information for the reader. There are also links available that are related to the topic of the article. The research was conducted by a team at Sheffield University. The pictures and visuals are related to the topic which gives some clues as to what the articles are about. The overall article was good source for people to learn more about beneficial fungi.

“How fertilizer alters soil microbes around the world” (2015)


This website has multiple parts. It explains the functions and importance of soil microbes, while also describing an investigation surrounding fertilizer and soil microbes. It is to the point and informative. The information is broken up by related links, which keeps the reader interested. The site could have done a better job of categorizing the information, but overall it was easy to navigate. Another way to improve this website, would have been to add more beneficial pictures. The website is reliable, as it is affiliated with Iowa State University and is a great resource for soil microbe facts.

“How Fire Severity Impacts Soil Microbes” (2016)


The effects that different levels of fire severity have on soil microbes are displayed in this website. This website is reliable as it is written by a professor in University of California’s ecology department. At the bottom of the page, there are links to the co-authors.  This page makes information on microbes in fires, accessible to all. It contains detailed pictures with captions, to further display research findings. The information is separated by questions and it is easy to follow. This is a great website to explain the impact of fire on soil microbes in a concise fashion. The website would benefit from having more links and better contact information.

"ICOMM International Census of Marine Microbes"


     The purpose of the site is to stimulate discovery, understanding, and awareness of marine microbes. The website has easy to locate tabs for various information. They also provide a way of contact and a way to communicate with others on the website. News and links are easily visual as well. The site is more understandable for mature readers with lots of professional information. The website allows people to become active and take part. 

“Identifying the Dominant Soil Bacterial Taxa in Libraries of 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA Genes” (2013)


       This web page aids in identifying different microbes found in soil. Written by the American Society for Microbiology, this website explains the genetics and taxonomy of common microbiology. It has both contact information and a large amount of references and further reading. Although it is easily navigable, this information on this website can get confusing due to its immense depth.  However, the site has very impressive credentials and accurate information.

“Impact of Protozoan Grazing on Bacterial Community Structure in Soil Microcosms” (2002)


        This site includes a short summary of the relationship between protozoa and bacteria. However, the summary includes many scientific terms and abbreviations, making it harder to comprehend the first time.

“The Importance of Microbes in Soil.” (2008)


                This website provides information on how important microbes are to soil and explaining products that are beneficial to them. This website is split into six parts, each with a different main idea. The photographs are very helpful and related to what the author is trying to explain. There are footnotes and photo credits at the end of the article, and more information on the author. The date this site was last updated and the name of the author is known and also more links to pieces written by the same author, and more links on soil and composting. There could be some more collaboration, but the contacts are alright, because you can comment the page.

Ingham, Elaine. “Soil Protozoa.” (2000)


This is an article that summarizes the presence and purpose of protozoa in the soil. It begins by stating what exactly protozoa are and their size, as well as their niche in the soil: they eat bacteria and release nitrogen for other organisms to use. It also lists the types of protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and amoebae, and gives corresponding images. After defining them, the article has more specific sections about what they do, where they are located, and some protozoan outliers. The site is easy to navigate, and the author and organization is reliable, as it is a government website and the author has a PhD. There are no obvious resources, but they may be at another location in the site. Overall, this site gives a very general overview about protozoa, which is helpful as an introduction but not as specific as is sometimes needed. This site scores a 7.89 with a + for contact information on a scale from 1-10.

"It Takes a Community of Soil Microbes to Protect Plants From Disease." (2011)


      This article is a report on a combined study conducted by U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Netherland’s Wageningen University. Although slightly more advanced, the article tried to simplify a complicated subject matter. The article focuses on the dual study where researchers analyzed a sugar beet field in the Netherlands and by use of a PhyloChip, discover the soil microbes responsible for fending off the pathogenic root fungus which attack beets. The PhyloChip allowed the researchers to identify the DNA fingerprints of various microbes present in the soil of the beet field. The article informs that there is an entire “underground immune system” with a network of different microbes working together to suppress diseases (“It Takes a Community of Soil Microbes to Protect Plants from Disease”).The article provides helpful additional information at the bottom of the site where there are easy links to help further a readers understanding and elaborate on the topic at hand. The site is extremely reliable and provides three appropriate graphics to supplement the text. However, the paper could be improved by enhancing the general conclusions of the study with statistical data.

Jayapalan, Chitra. “Soil Protozoa, a Microbial Indicator of Soil Health: A Review.”


This article shows how protozoa are necessary in the environment and describes their role in the ecosystem. It explains how protozoa both act as a food source and who they compete with for their own food. In addition, it demonstrates how their presence in the soil helps the ecosystem and supplement the nutrient cycles in the soil. This article is easy to follow. It also has references that allow more information to be found.

“Lab 5: Soil and the Carbon Cycle” (3/17/2016)


            This website gives a lot of information about carbon dioxide and its relationship with the functioning and efficiency of soil microbes.  It covers the types as well as the occupational qualities of soil microbes in a given environment.  It provides a video link that is easy to get to have an extensive visual aid.  Towards the bottom of the page, it gets a little cluttered which can be a little difficult to navigate.

Lin, C., Chou, T., and Wu, J. “Biodiversity of soil algae in the farmlands of mid-Taiwan” (2013)


            The purpose of this article is to discuss the authors’ findings in their investigation on soil algae in five types of farmland in mid-Taiwan including rice paddies, vegetable farms, etc.  This article is in a typical scientific paper format and also includes an extensive list of references which offer additional information. There is extensive information on their research with several data tables and appropriate visuals of algae. The article is easy to navigate, and the research is well explained so that it is easy to understand. Overall this article gets an 8.4– on a scale of 1-10.

Llado, Lopez-Mondejar, and Baldrian. “Forest Soil Bacteria: Diversity, Involvement in Ecosystem Processes, and Response to Global Change”. [Online] Available (June 2017)


This article explains the ecology of forest soils and how we still have a long way to go until it is fully understood. It explains how the bacteria in the soil contribute to the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other essential soil processes. They also help the decomposition process for dead plant biomass and dead fungal mycelia. Soil bacteria also respond to climate warming, increased levels of carbon dioxide, anthropogenic nitrogen decomposition, and other types of global change. The website is very well organized with separate categories and sub-categories for different parts of the website. It also has diagrams and pictures to help explain what they are trying to say. I rated this website as an 8+.

“Making Microorganisms Mobilize Soil Phosphorus” (undated)


        This website is very specific to its topic on soil microbes and its affect on phosphorus. It refers to many examples and references when it is discussing methods to mobilizing, enhancing and the availability of phosphorus in soil.

“Microbes in soil are essential for life and may help mitigate climate change” (2017)


This page starts by introducing a Professor of soil science and soil microbial ecology at UC Davis, Kate Scow, whom gives the important information about soil microbes throughout the study. In the Study Scow speaks generally about soil microbes, and then goes into more detailed information about the environmental impacts of microbes on ecosystems, and their effects and benefits towards different organisms in the ecosystems. The page also goes into information about multiple different studies that have been done by credited professors. It is easily accessible, with valuable information about soil microbes. This page is provided by UC Davis, and therefore has reliable and useful information on the topic. The information is organized well and in a way that is clear and easy to comprehend as a reader. This website is recommended for research on soil microbes.

“Microbes of Many Talents” (2015)


This site addresses the different microbes found in soil and the different functions that each microbe performs in a given sample of soil depending on environment and conditions.  The respiration and the growth is described.  The website is easy to navigate and gives useful information about soil microbes in the soil.  However, there could be more charts and diagrams to provide more of a visual aid for the information.

"Protozoan." (10/5/2012)


Written by Britannica, this article demonstrates the importance of protozoan in the environment and the soil. It explains in a simple way how protozoa eat soil bacteria and therefore keeping the bacteria’s population stable and regulated. Also, it mentions how the protozoa have a symbiotic relationship with the algae and are necessary for a few species of algae. Although there are no visuals for this specific part of the article, the content provided is still understandable. This article has extensive information about protozoa in general, but there is adequate and useful information in the section on protozoa in soil.

“Role of Soil Bacteria: Update and Revision.” (2016)


This website largely describes the roles and functions of microbes in the soil, especially bacteria. The information is very specific and includes the types of soil bacteria and what they do for the environment around them. This page was most recently updated in 2016 by an assistant professor and extension educator in conjunction with the Midwest Cover Crops Council. The webpage provides good visuals that also have descriptions to help the reader better understand the information given to them. For these reasons this site earned a score of 8.67-.

“Scientists Unlock Key Information About the Worlds Soil Microbes” (2018)


 The goal of this site is to provide knowledge about the many different effects on soil microbes found in the Worldwide Atlas of Soil Microbes. It includes information about how microbes are being impacted by climate change around the world and the effect this has on the environments. There are many quotes from environmental scientists like Noah Fierer who helped to create the first atlas of soil microbes. This site includes images of ecological clusters of bacterial phylotypes in habitats with high pH, low pH, drylands, and low plant productivity. This site is very current, and the authors share professional knowledge about soil microbes. A negative to this site is the amount of information is small and the site doesn’t have a large amount of factual data. There is a “click here” button that is helpful in leading the reader to more information about climate change impacting microbiomes.

Stark, N., and Went, F.W. “The Biological and Mechanical Role of Soil Fungi” (1968) https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b7fe/8ae4d3a26be0769a7b7c2c805ed98719c46f.pdf

            This site mainly discusses the role of fungi in the soil and mentions some of the other microorganisms that are involved in the decomposition process. It is somewhat difficult to navigate this article since there are no headers or distinct sections outlined by the authors. They do, however, provide a list of references for additional information on the topic. The information is easy to understand even though the article explains the function of fungi in detail. There are several pictures with descriptions explaining what each picture shows. Overall, this site gets a 7.7/- on a scale of 1-10.

"The Microbe World"


     This purpose of this website is to provide information of different types of micro-organisms and descriptions of what they do. Basic information on microbes is provided as well as different topics about microbes. There are links that have different pages concerning the classification, shapes, and habitats of microbes and what they eat, as well as quizzes. In general, the site is easy to navigate around and learn. The website has visuals though they are not explained. The website is specific but also easy enough to understand. 

“The Role of Soil Microorganisms in Plant Mineral Nutrition-Current knowledge and Future Directions”(2017)


This site is a very good source of information about soil microbes and how they work with plants. It explains how microbes, such as different types of fungi and bacteria, are important from improving plant nutrition. The amount of information on this site in lengthy but is well organized with headings. There are many images available through the site that provide a helpful understanding of the many facts provided. A negative to this site is that it is very long and not specifically about one topic.

"Microbe Zoo Dirtland." (2000)


       This website tells people how much they need microbes in the soil by telling them microbes’ use in the soil in different places. This is a good site because it is easy to navigate and is easy to read and understand. I recommend it because of these reasons if you wish to understand what microbes do to the dirt of the world and how useful they really are. 

“Microbial Biomass” (2015)


The purpose of this website is to explain microbial biomass. It goes in-depth on microbial biomass, which is “bacteria and fungi, which decompose crop residues and organic matter in soil”. It also mainly talks about Bacteria and Fungi, which are two prominent soil microbes. This website is a great resource for learning about microbial biomass, which are soil microbes.

"Microbes: What they do and how antibiotics change them?" (2001)




                This article about the effects antibiotics change soil microbes is a reliable source as it is not biased, organized, and it has a few visuals which keeps the reader, reading. The article was written by Maura Meade-Callahan, a professor of biology at Allegheny College. Although this article mainly discusses the effects of antibiotics on the environment/. More ever the article manages to discuss microbes, and therefore gives its readers knowledge about microbes that is sufficient enough to understand their role in various ecosystems.


"The Living Soil: Arthropods" (2001)


This site is a great source of information about arthropods, and the effect the have on the soil. It includes the different types of arthropods, where they live, what they do, and the kinds in your soil. A huge positive to this site is the number of images. There are many images for each subtopic about arthropods that help the reader to visualizes what the text is about. A negative to this site is that it was last updated in 2001, so there isn’t newly discovered data included.



 “The Next Green Revolution May Rely on Microbes” (2014)



This website explains microbes as a whole and how they contribute to our ecosystem. Albeit the first few paragraphs are solely about Ian Sanders and his research subject of mycorrhizal fungus, which is a type of soil microbe; it goes on to talk about different types of microbes and their role in the soil. It also associates microbes with plants, along with explaining how microbes function. This website is beneficial for understanding microbes and their role in the soil.


"Protozoa And The Soil" (1952)


       Free-living protozoa are found in every variety of habitats. Protozoa can also be found in hot springs, salt lakes, sewage filters and in the soil.  The role of protozoa in the soil is an open system, which energy is constantly both being introduced and lost. Bacteria, antinomies, fungi and algae represent the plant kingdom; protozoa, nematodes, rotifers, gastrotriches, tardigrades, enchytraeids (pot worms), mites and insect larvae represent the animal kingdom. To all these organisms moisture is essential for their activity and this is retained in the spaces from drainage loss partly by capillary action and partly by the absorptive power of the soil colloids. As the soil dries out the colloids form a thin film around the particles binding them together.   

"Research Interests." (2007)


        This site contains helpful information on soil microbes. One specific scientist, Michael Weintraub, reveals information about soil microbes. This site provides several visuals to help the reader understand what is being said.  

“Soil Arthropod” (2018)


The goal of the information provided is to educate viewers on the overall purpose of soil arthropods and to become aware of their surroundings. This website contains a detailed report of the varying types of arthropods and their descriptions, general climate locations and the existence of such microbes in modern cultivations. This specific section contains all information needed to know about soil arthropods on the same page. This website provides user friendly information, making the knowledge easy to understand for a variety of ages. The specific information is specific and not overly elaborate, captivating the reader’s attention without eventually boring the recipient.


"The Role of Fungus" (2011)


In this article, they describe the role of soil fungus the types of soil fungus the roles of soil fungi, and where it can be found in its habitat of soil. This site is incredible at going into great detail to describe the fungi purposes and specificity. They also cite their references and give good descriptions below pictures to illustrate what is being shown. They also acknowledged people who helped and where they got some of their information and note related articles. This page could be improved by: shortening the articles and being more direct (while all the information is helpful in understanding, it is not necessary).

“The Role of Protozoa and Nematodes” (2011)


This article provides background information as well as the significance of two types of soil microbes: protozoa and nematodes. For both microbes, the site highlights the basic information about their size, types, and interaction with the environment. Corresponding to the background information of each type of microbe, there are diagrams displaying the microbe and their respective types. In addition, there are descriptions of the role that protozoa and nematodes play in the ecosystem while interacting in soil with other microbes, such as bacteria. It is also highlighted that while nematodes play a major role in the environment, they can be parasitic and need to be managed; a major portion of the article is dedicated to this. This website is extremely organized by maintaining a specific pattern to provide information about the respective microbes, while providing appropriate and informative images. However, there is a large focus on nematodes in this article, while there is not as much information on protozoa.

“The Role of Soil Bacteria” (2011)


This article thoroughly explains the role of bacteria ranging from an introduction to a detailed description of their role it he ecosystem. The article classifies different types of bacteria while using appropriate diagrams. However, these diagrams were not easy to correspond to their respective information. Also, it explains the functions of each of these bacteria while emphasizing the benefits and drawbacks because of the respective roles they play. In addition, at the end of the article, there was a helpful summary to conclude the information of different aspects of bacteria life.

“The Role of Soil Microbes in Plant Sulphur Nutrition” (2004)


       The goal of this site is too inform people about how important soil microbes are. The roles soil microbes play really benefits natural in a tremendous way. This website also explains the different chemicals that are used in the soil, and the roles soil microbes in plant sulphur. The site explains what is  sulphur and the actions of sulphur. A soil microbe plays a huge role in plant sulphur nutrition. It talks about the different types of atmosphere that the soil is set in.

“The role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle: tracking the below-ground microbial processing of plant-derived carbon for manipulating carbon dynamics in agricultural systems” (2014).


This article consists of information about soil microbes and how they affect carbon dynamics and specifically atmospheric carbon dioxide. The article also includes helpful pictures and diagrams that are relevant to the information about how soil microorganisms affect the carbon cycle, along with keywords that make it clear what information is included in each specific part of the article. The language in the article is sophisticated, and the information is very detailed. The article is very recent, and there is a very detailed bibliography.

“Soil Algae: The Unknown, Unsung Heroes of Life on Terra Firma”


This article covers soil algae. It is relatively simple with a large amount of relevant information on algae. The visuals are all relevant to their part of the slideshow. It is loaded with credible resources the reader can further read into. However, contacting the author may prove difficult.


“Soil Bacteria” (2015)


This website gives extensive information about bacteria including what they are, what they do, and other important information about them. It gives recent informative since it was last updated in 2015 and is also easy to understand as well as navigate. This website could improve by adding more detailed pictures.

“Soil Bacteria and Fungi - New South Wales.” (2016)


The site begins with key points of information included on the web page. It then defines soil bacteria and soil fungi. It list the different bacteria and fungi groups. Lastly it included information on how to manage soil bacteria and soil fungi. The website also includes where you could go for further information on the topic. The site is easy to navigate and the topics are clearly labeled. There is only one picture on the site.    

"Soil Biology Basics: Soil Fungi"


            This webpage, part of the Natural Resources Conservation Service, offers a description of protozoa, what they do and where they can be found. With helpful visuals that do not distract the reader from the actual information, the page offers unbiased information in an easy to understand way. The actual page is part of an online book which is linked on the left hand side of the page. Not only is the overview of the book linked to this page, but other chapters of the book that cover topics such as soil fungi, soil food web and arthropods are linked to the page as well. Other links on the page direct the reader to informative and easily understood webpages on different soil topics. Contact information such as phone numbers and emails as well as the credentials of the authors are listed on a separate page, which can be found by scrolling to the bottom of the original webpage and clicking on Contact us. The entire website is a good source of basic information on protozoa, fungi and overall soil information.

“Soil Ecology and Restoration Group Web Page.”  (2004)


       This site is focused on soil studies on arid and semiarid lands, more specifically on the Mojave Desert, Southern California Coastal, and Sonoran Desert. This website includes background on the Soil Ecology and Restoration Group. The website also has extensive plant and fungi species lists in the three areas of focus as well as techniques to help in the restoration of soil in arid and semiarid lands. A short summary of current research is also included, although it is not very current ranging from  There are a large number of research sites in arid and semiarid lands as well as grasslands, woodlands, and tropical forests. The research focuses on changes over time in each area. There is a large list of links to websites mainly focused on soil restoration. This site is very useful if you are focused on this type of land, otherwise it is not very useful. 

“Soil Environment and Physical Factors Controlling Microbial Activity” (2011)


      This site is a Wiki page for learning about Soil Microbes. It is divided into 7 sections explaining the chemical, physical and biological factors of soil. It also has sections for relevant organisms, current research, and references. It also has a few diagrams showing which levels of soil have high, moderate, and low microbial activity. It also has a picture of some relevant organisms that were found. This website is very specific, uses a big vocabulary and includes the scientific names of organisms. It is harder to read if one is not familiar with some of the terms. However, this site includes a lot of very helpful information. 

 "Soil Health: Bacteria"


            This pdf file offers an overview of what soil microbes are and gives an in depth report on fungi. The file describes the three main groups of fungi, what fungi do, where fungi can be found and how to manage fungi in the soil. At the bottom of the article a section lists other websites, all of which are either .edu or .gov, and books that provide more information on soil biology. Although the information is very helpful, the reading is a little boring due to the lack of visual aids, but the article length is appropriate for the type of information described. However, the pdf is from 2005 and so the information may not be completely accurate do to advancements in the study of soil since that year. The author’s name is given but no contact information can be found on the actual page and no link to find the contact information is given. This pdf file is great for basic understanding of fungi and how to encourage fungi in soil.

“Soil Fungi Critical to Organic Success” (2005)


             This article discusses research on the use of mycorrhizal fungi in helping organic farmers, and, specifically, the fungi’s role among the roots of plants.  It describes the experimental process, how the fungi interacts with the roots, and possible applications of the fungi on a greater scale in the future. A nonscientific article, it is highly readable, with visuals designed to hold interest rather than strictly inform and vocabulary clearly explained in common terms. The research was published by chemists associated with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service. The site is fairly easy to navigate. However, it lacks references, and is strongly biased to the benefits of the fungi. It is possible to contact the agricultural service, but not the individual researchers. 

“The Soil Makers: A Brief Look at Soil Zoology” (2003)


    This website shows the essential facts needed to know about soil. Wherever you step, either on grassland or woodland, there are many more species under your feet than you really see. This site also has all the sources of what soil is, does, and how it benefits some organisms “The soil has been described as the “Poor Man’s Rainforest” such is the amazing diversity and complexity of the life that exists there.” Soil consists of numerous parts of matter, organic and inorganic scatter of many pores. These pores are many homes for various living organisms and it can be an escape route or a temporary home for others. This site is pretty reliable and is very current. This site also has many references and bibliographies, along with links from this site. However, this site does not give the author’s credentials or visuals. Nevertheless, this is a pretty good site with much information to offer. 

Soil Microbes (2012)


     The goal of this site is to educate people on the important role that soil microbes play in agriculture. It also explains how the land management affects the general microbial diversity. The website states is purpose by saying “This introduces an interesting potential  for managing soil microbial diversity to provide specific ecosystem services such as greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.” This website as a whole is split up into nine different sections with additional links in each corresponding to the section. The nine sections are: home, who we are, who we help, research, data, gallery, get involved, blog, and contact us. This website is specific and easy to understand. It includes diagrams and pictures which makes it easier to understand.

“Soil Microbes and Global Warming.” (undated)


                This website is used to explain what microbes are and their relationship with global warming. Not only does this website have great written information, but it also has a tab for questions for discussion and a video on this topic. The video is a really good source for visual learners. Many related links and resources are attached to the side of the main essay. The sources the website used, what it was produced by, and who the website was funded by are also listed on the side. The correlation also seems very appropriate. If this website on soil microbes and global warming had an official author, it would be even better.

"Soil Microbes- Do You Need to Add Them to the Garden?" (2014).


The article, Soil Microbes- Do You Need to Add Them to the Garden?, shows how significant it is to have microbes in the soil. The article was published recently in 2014. It was written by Robert Palvis who has written other articles on plants and soil. Although, his profession and background are unknown. There are links to related articles, however, there is no bibliography to or references to back up his information. Another concern is that there is only one visual portrayed. The information is somewhat specific and helpful to those reading who seek knowledge about microbes. Unfortunately, there are no links to provide additional information. 

"Soil Microbes: From Erosion reduction to tracking." (2005)


       This site explains how soil erosion is a dynamic process and a major source of soil resource depletion. Erosion also causes air and water pollution. Soil life impacts soil erosion by influencing plant root growth, organic matter accumulation, soil aggregated formation and soil structure.  

"Soil Microbes Harbor Nasty Antibiotic Resistance Genes." (2012)


      This LiveScience article is a report written by journalist Wynne Parry on the results of a study performed by the Washington University School of Medicine at St. Louis with specific quotes from researcher Kevin Forsberg. The article focuses on the natural ability of gene swapping between bacteria, which allows bacteria to thrive in various environments. Due to the unprecedented increase in the use of antibiotics in agriculture, animals are treated with multiple antibiotics. Therefore, the antibiotics in the animals spread to their waste which is then used for fertilizer.  The presence of these antibiotics in fertilizer has consequently stimulated adaptions for survival amongst soil bacteria populations. Thus, there has been an increase in the exchange of antibiotic resistance genes identical to the original between bacteria, even those of different species. A downside to this site, although made easily understandable for younger readers, the site is not 100% reliable. However, it is owned by TechMedia Network, which in its turn is a reputable company. The author of this article lacks credentials, but due to their direct contact with a researcher in the study, the article can be trusted. The site also offers other links to articles which are easy to navigate through.

“Soil Microbiology: A Primer”


      This site gives good information on the basics of soil microbes including the types of microbes and their functions. This website is a reliable source because it is an .edu website, was written by Vern Grubinger who is a Vegetable and Berry Specialist from the University of Vermont, and was last updated in July 2004. Some of the negatives of this website are it’s lack of visuals, related links, and references.

“Soil Microbiology FAQ’s” (1998)


        This website discusses the frequently asked questions about soil microbes. The questions include topics such as: the type of microbes found in grass, the beneficial aspects of soil microbes, the factors that control the rates of growth, ways to increase microbial activity, and the causes of fertilizers on soil microbes. The questions are simple and the answers are complex yet easy to understand. The answers have definitions which allow someone without any soil ecology background to easily understand the concept of soil microbes. The statistics show the amounts of soil microbes in the soil and some of the numbers are rather shocking. The website has useful images and it is very easy to navigate. There are links which lead to each question. 

“Soil Microorganisms”. (2010)


     This article talks about the life beneath our feet which is soil. The article talks about the decomposition process with bacteria. This article states that bacteria are an essential part of the soil food web. This article is good because of the length of info added. Each section has its own title that explains what the readers are going to read next. Other microbes are mentioned and are described in other sections that pertain to that specific organism. Even though this article doesn’t have many links it is easy to know what you are reading because of the titles above each section.

“Soil Microorganisms” (undated)


     This specific article discusses the importance of soil microorganisms and how they benefit the environment. They “help keep your soil healthy, decompose organic matter, replenish soil nutrients, form humus, promote root growth, increase nutrient uptake, and breakdown of herbicides and pesticides.” It gives a brief report on the importance of soil microorganisms and how they benefit the environment, then, however, jumps to information on how to help such microorganisms thrive in a garden. This website would be excellent if someone were desirous of learning how microorganisms help a garden thrive and how to maintain them.

"Soil Microorganisms" (2012).


This website is known as the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education. This site explains the types of soil microorganisms and how they affect the soil. This information was last updated in 2012. This site is upheld by SARE Outreach for the SARE program and is based upon work supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture. SARE Outreach works under cooperative agreements with the University of Maryland to develop and distribute information about sustainable agriculture. This is a great website if you would like to know what soil is comprised of. There are multiple tabs to click on for more information. Fortunately, there is a link for videos and tips. The author, Fred Magdoff, is emeritus professor of plant and soil science at the University of Vermont and assistant professor at Cornell University. There is only picture in the Soil Microorganism page, so it will be hard to visualize what these microorganisms exactly look like.

"Soil Moisture Study." (undated)


       This site shows a study that was performed at the University of Nebraska.  They show the goal, the description, and the processes that have been conducted in the study. The main goal of this experiment is to measure the amount of water at the root level of the ground. In this project, the purpose of the experiment is to see how water is absorbed and how it evaporates. The group collected many samples and measured the precipitation to discover what happens to water in the environment. This would be a good website for some one trying to figure out what kind of information they are looking for when undergoing a soil study.

"Soil Mineralogy" (2007)


In this article, they give an overview of the basic components of weathering and how soil is produced from it. They go in depth to explain how chemical weathering contributes to the production of soil and the mineralogy within it. They also describe the processes of studying soil mineralogy and what exactly is being studied. The process of rocks breaking down to become soil and what types of soil is as well being described. This site is very clear, blunt, and descriptive when talking about weathering and the makeup of soil minerals. They also have very specific picture references and charts to exemplify the structure of the soil crystalline. They also have just enough photographic references so that the main point is clearly expressed. This site can improve themselves by: adding direct quotes to prove the information is true and to cite references in the text. 

“Soil Nematodes.” (no date)


This is the official site of the United States Department of Agriculture. The site explains what nematodes are, how they are divided into groups based on their diet, what they do and how they affect the soil and water quality. There are links on the side of the page can direct you to different soil biologies including soil bacteria and soil protozoa. The site has clear headings and extremely  helpful links of corresponding topics. The pictures are clearly labeled and easy to understand. There are no images of the different nematodes classifications.

“Study Helps Clarify Role of Soil Microbes in Global Warming” (2009)


      This article is mainly about how temperature affects the function of microorganisms. The higher the temperature, the harder it is for microbes to function, sending more heat-trapping carbon into the atmosphere. This article overall talks about how temperature can affect microbes. This article shares the many different theories about how temperature affects the function and amount of microorganisms in soil.  

“The Truth About Microbes.” (2005)


            This site is written around answering five questions. Some of the questions include a background on soil microbes, what they do, and what they are needed for. Each question has a separate paragraph where it goes into much more detail and gets more specific. Although there aren’t many colorful visuals, there are some visuals of tables and bulleted points highlighting the main ideas. Although the correlation is pretty long, this website is explaining a lot of different topics about soil microbes. At the bottom of the site, there are also many useful references for further reading. The contacts are extensive with the address of the author, email address, and phone number.

"Trapping Carbon in Soil Key for Protecting Global Food Security, Dealing with Climate Change." (2004)


        This article focuses on making the issue of restoring soil carbon levels a top priority for the global community.  The author states, “The amount of carbon that can be restored in the world’s degraded agricultural soils will directly influence global food security and climate change within our lifetime”(“Trapping Carbon in Soil Key for Protecting Global Food Security, Dealing with Climate Change” 2004).  This claim is supported with proposals and details referring to the level of carbon in soil and the affect the inadequate levels are having on food productions.  Vigorous experiments have been conducted to find reason behind the insufficient levels.  The issue is demonstrated clearly and through this easy to understand website the issue is presented in a way for an average reader to comprehend.  The information is abundant, yet easy to manage.             

 “Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling” (2010)


       The website is published through Ohio State University as a part of their “Sustainable Agricultural Fact Sheet Series”. The goal of the series was to form a small online database for the public, as a way to educate the masses. This website has pertinent visual aids and the authors are experts in the field of study.  The site also has many references, examples for further reading, and multiple ways to contact the authors and college. The page is very recent; it was last updated in 2010.

“Why Fungi Rule the World”


This article covers and narrates a YouTube video discussing fungus. The video follows Jennifer Talbot, an assistant professor in biology, as she explains the role of fungi in climate change. The video and article provide sufficient information about mushrooms, however, the article thoroughly covers Talbot’s journey to studying fungi, which may be irrelevant to the reader. It also lacks further references aside from the video.


"Why Tiny Microbes Mean Big Things for Farming" (2014).


A National Geographic article, Why Tiny Microbes Mean Big Things for Farming, shows how microbes help with farming. The article was published on September 18, 2014. The website contains some irrelevant images with ads. There are neither links, nor bibliography to support the information. The specificity and length of the article are sufficient for the topic. However, there are some pictures relating to microbes. You can contact the author of this article, Peter Andrey Smith through Twitter and find more about his background.